Sunday, September 30, 2007

Institutional memory is a collective of facts, concepts, experiences and know-how held by a group of people. As it transcends the individual, it requires the ongoing transmission of these memories between members of this group. Elements of institutional memory may be found in corporations, professional groups, government bodies, religious groups, academic collaborations and by extension in entire cultures.
Institutional memory may be encouraged to preserve a group's ideology or way of work. Conversely, institutional memory may be ingrained to the point that it becomes hard to challenge if something is found to contradict that which was previously thought to have been correct.

Institutional knowledge
Publishing has changed greatly in its organization, financing, distribution, and bottom line emphasis. The dissemination of knowledge in printed media has been consolidated under the control of a relatively few corporate publishers, many with ties to mass entertainment multi-national conglomerates.

Literature and documents
Memories were shared and sustained across generations before writing appeared. Some of the oral tradition can be traced, distantly, back to the dawn of civilization, but not all past societies have left any mark on the present.

Saturday, September 29, 2007

For other uses, see dateline (disambiguation).
A dateline is a short piece of text included in news articles that describes where and when the story was filed, though the date is often omitted. In the case of articles reprinted from wire services, the distributing organization is also included (though the originating one is not). Datelines are traditionally placed on the first line of the text of the article, before the first sentence.
The location appears first, usually starting with the city the reporter is in (or the name of the nearest large city). City names are usually printed in uppercase, though this can vary from one publication to another. The political division and/or nation the city is in may follow, but they may be dropped if the city name is widely recognizable due to its size or political importance (a national capital, for instance). The date of the report comes after, followed by an em dash surrounded by spaces, and then the article.
A typical newspaper dateline might read
`BEIRUT, Lebanon, June 2 — The outlook was uncertain today as ...`
The same story if pulled from the Associated Press (AP) wire might appear as
`BEIRUT (AP) — The outlook was uncertain today as ...`
Datelines can take on some unusual forms. When reporters collaborate on a story, two different locations might be listed. In other cases, the exact location may be unknown or intentionally imprecise, such as when covering military operations while on a ship at sea or following an invasion force.

Friday, September 28, 2007

Tapestry Media is a digital optical disc about the size of a DVD with a capacity of 300GB. It will go on sale in 2007, according to its American developer, InPhase Technologies, a Lucent spin-off. No major motion pictures will be released onto the format.

Storage

DVD
HD DVD
Blu-ray Disc
Holographic Versatile Disc
Protein-coated disc

Thursday, September 27, 2007

Coordinates: 0°30′07.58″S, 117°09′13.34″E Samarinda is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan (Kalimantan Timur) on the island of Borneo. The city lies on the banks of the Mahakam River. As well as being the capital, Samarinda is also the most populous city in East Kalimantan with a population of 562,463 (2000) and as such is used by many as a gateway to the more remote regions of the province such as Kutai Barat, Kutai Kartanegara and East Kutai. Reaching these areas usually involves travel by river as the most efficient means. Although it has status as the capital of kalimantan Timur Province, some of government public service centre is located in Balikpapan, such as Police, Indonesian Army District VI of Tanjung Pura, and Pelabuhan Indonesia (Port Transportation).
Transport into Samarinda itself is facilitated by an airport, Temindung and a port, however, there are plans to relocate both the airport and port soon.

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

Delbert Martin Mann, Jr. (born January 30, 1920 Lawrence, Kansas) American television and film director. He graduated from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. He was married to Ann Caroline Mann from 1941 until his wife's death in 2001.
From 1967 to 1971, he was president of the Directors Guild of America.
He won the Academy Award for Directing the film Marty.

Selected Filmography

Marty (1955)
The Bachelor Party (1957)
Desire Under the Elms (1958)
Separate Tables (1958)
The Dark at the Top of the Stairs (1960)
Lover Come Back (1961)
The Outsider (1961)
That Touch of Mink (1962)
A Gathering of Eagles (1963)
All Quiet on the Western Front (TV adaptation, 1969)
The Last Days of Patton (TV)

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

The National Theatre Bucharest (Romanian: Teatrul Naţional "Ion Luca Caragiale" Bucureşti) is the national theatre of Romania, located in the capital Bucharest.

Founding and the old theatre
The current National Theatre is located about half a kilometre away from the old site, just south of the Hotel Intercontinental at Piaţa Universităţii (University Square), and has been in use since 1973.
It forms part of a complex that also includes the Romanian National Operetta, an art gallery and exhibition space, and several of the city's most prominent bars, including the massive rooftop terrace La Motoare. The present facility includes the Sala Mare ("the Large Hall"), with 1,155 seats; the Sala Amfiteatru ("the Amphitheatre Hall"), with 353 seats; Sala Atelier ("the Studio Theatre") with no fixed stage, with 94-219 seats depending on how it is configured; and Sala Studio 99, also without a fixed stage, seating 75-99 people.

Monday, September 24, 2007

Jack Hoxie (January 11, 1885 - March 28, 1965) was an American rodeo performer and motion picture actor whose career was most prominent in the silent film era of the 1910s through the 1930s. Hoxie is best recalled for his roles in Westerns and never strayed from the genre.

Film career
During the 1930s, Jack Hoxie made a brief comeback in films after signing a contract with Majestic Pictures. The films however, did little to revive Jack's career as a film actor and he once again hit the rodeo circuit. Hoxie's last film appearance would be in the 1933 release Trouble Busters with actor Lane Chandler, who had appeared alongside Hoxie in a number of earlier films.
He eventually divorced and married his third wife, Dixie Starr. The couple briefly operated a dude ranch in Herford, Arizona called the Broken Arrow Ranch. After a fire consumed the ranch, Jack once again began appearing in Wild West shows, often billed as the 'Famous Western Screen Star'. Hoxie would make appearances throughout the 1940s and well into the 1950s before finally making his last public appearance as a performer in 1959 for the Bill Tatum Circus.
Jack divorced Dixie Starr and married his fourth wife Bonnie Avis Showalter and the couple retired to a small ranch in Arkansas, then later moving to his mother Matilda's old homestead in Oklahoma. In his later years, Jack Hoxie developed leukemia and died in 1965 at the age of 80. He was interred at the Willowbar Cemetery in Keyes, Oklahoma [1] with the epitaph inscription "A Star in Life - A Star in Heaven".

Sunday, September 23, 2007

European National Front is a coordinating structure of European far-right extremist, Third Positionist, anticapitalist, anticommunist and nationalist parties.

Structure
The European National Front is headed by General Secretary, elected by ENF Assembly. The current General Secretary is Roberto Fiore.

General Secretary
The Political Council is the founder's staff of the ENF. It safeguards the idea and principles of ENF. The Council can be increased by unanimous will of cooptation. It represents the Front outside, and confirms applications for ENF membership. The Members of the Council belong to ENF Assembly.

Political Council
The ENF Assembly defines the tactics and strategy of ENF. The Assembly consists of representatives of the movements belonging to ENF and members of Political Council.v

Co-ordination Centre
Legal registered political parties/movements that accept the principles, aims and structure of ENF can apply for membership. The accession to ENF must be submitted by authorized representative of the applicant and then confirmed by Political Council.
Current members:

Forza Nuova (Italy)
National Democratic Party of Germany (Germany)
Noua Dreaptă (Romania)
Patriotic Alliance (Greece)
La Falange (Spain)
Renouveau Francais (France)
National Revival of Poland (Poland) Affiliated Groups
No member of the "European National Front" has achieved entry into the European Parliament.

Saturday, September 22, 2007

Charlie O'Donnell (born August 12, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a television announcer best known for his work on Wheel of Fortune.
O'Donnell began his career in 1958, working with Dick Clark on American Bandstand. This led to several stints as a disc jockey on Los Angeles radio (most notably on legendary Pasadena station KRLA), and later as news anchorman on Los Angeles television station KCOP-TV, the home of The Joker's Wild and Tic Tac Dough during its initial syndicated reigns.
He also made a full-time career as an announcer on many television shows throughout the decades, with such series as The Joker's Wild, Tic Tac Dough, Card Sharks and The \$100,000 Pyramid (again working with Dick Clark). He has also served as announcer for the American Music Awards, the Emmy Awards and the Academy Awards.
He may be best known as the announcer for Wheel of Fortune. O'Donnell has served as the show's announcer from 1975 (introducing the show until the early-1990s as "Wheeeeeeellllllll of Fortune"), with the exception of a period from 1980-88 when Jack Clark and M.G. Kelly served as announcers (due to a commitment to Pyramid and before that with Barry & Enright and later Chuck Barris Productions). Several months following the death of Clark in 1988, O'Donnell returned as permanent Wheel announcer. During Jack Clark's tenure, O'Donnell would periodically fill in for him on the daytime version.
Among the game show companies O'Donnell worked for as a primary announcer includes Merv Griffin Productions (1975-80 and 1989-present), Barry & Enright Productions (1981-86), and Chuck Barris Productions (1986-89). Charlie has also announced game shows for Mark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions (Card Sharks, Trivia Trap, Family Feud, To Tell The Truth); Bob Stewart Productions, and for Hill-Eubanks Group's All Star Secrets and The Guinness Game.
Charlie also provides narration for several online videos on the website Encyclomedia.com.

Friday, September 21, 2007

The travelling salesman problem (TSP) is a problem in discrete or combinatorial optimization. It is a prominent illustration of a class of problems in computational complexity theory which are classified as NP-hard. Mathematical problems related to the travelling salesman problem were treated in the 1800s by the Irish mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton and by the British mathematician Thomas Penyngton Kirkman. A discussion of the early work of Hamilton and Kirkman can be found in Graph Theory 1736-1936.

Problem statement

An equivalent formulation in terms of graph theory is: Given a complete weighted graph (where the vertices would represent the cities, the edges would represent the roads, and the weights would be the cost or distance of that road), find a Hamiltonian cycle with the least weight. It can be shown that the requirement of returning to the starting city does not change the computational complexity of the problem. demonstrated that the generalised travelling salesman problem can be transformed into a standard travelling salesman problem with the same number of cities, but a modified distance matrix. Computational complexity
The problem has been shown to be NP-hard (more precisely, it is complete for the complexity class FP; see the function problem article), and the decision problem version ("given the costs and a number x, decide whether there is a roundtrip route cheaper than x") is NP-complete. The bottleneck travelling salesman problem is also NP-hard. The problem remains NP-hard even for the case when the cities are in the plane with Euclidean distances, as well as in a number of other restrictive cases. Removing the condition of visiting each city "only once" does not remove the NP-hardness, since it is easily seen that in the planar case an optimal tour visits cities only once (otherwise, by the triangle inequality, a shortcut that skips a repeated visit would decrease the tour length).

NP-hardness
The traditional lines of attack for the NP-hard problems are the following:
For benchmarking of TSP algorithms, TSPLIB a library of sample instances of the TSP and related problems is maintained, see the TSPLIB external reference. Many of them are lists of actual cities and layouts of actual printed circuits.

Devising algorithms for finding exact solutions (they will work reasonably fast only for relatively small problem sizes).
Devising "suboptimal" or heuristic algorithms, i.e., algorithms that deliver either seemingly or probably good solutions, but which could not be proved to be optimal.
Finding special cases for the problem ("subproblems") for which either better or exact heuristics are possible. Algorithms
An exact solution for 15,112 German towns from TSPLIB was found in 2001 using the cutting-plane method proposed by George Dantzig, Ray Fulkerson, and Selmer Johnson in 1954, based on linear programming. The computations were performed on a network of 110 processors located at Rice University and Princeton University (see the Princeton external link). The total computation time was equivalent to 22.6 years on a single 500 MHz Alpha processor. In May 2004, the travelling salesman problem of visiting all 24,978 towns in Sweden was solved: a tour of length approximately 72,500 kilometers was found and it was proven that no shorter tour exists.. Exact algorithms
Various approximation algorithms, which quickly yield good solutions with high probability, have been devised. Modern methods can find solutions for extremely large problems (millions of cities) within a reasonable time which are with a high probability just 2-3% away from the optimal solution.
Several categories of heuristics are recognized.

Heuristics

The nearest neighbour (NN) algorithm lets the salesman start from any one city and choose the nearest city not visited yet to be his next visit. This algorithm quickly yields an effectively short route. Rosenkrantz et al. [1977] showed that the NN algorithm has the approximation factor Θ(log | V | ). In 2D Euclidean TSP, NN algorithm result in a length about 1.26*(optimal length). Unfortunately, there exist some examples for which this algorithm gives a highly inefficient route. A bad result is due to the greedy nature of this algorithm. Constructive heuristics

Pairwise exchange, or Lin-Kernighan heuristics. The pairwise exchange or '2-opt' technique involves iteratively removing two edges and replacing these with two different edges that reconnect the fragments created by edge removal into a new and more optimal tour. This is a special case of the k-opt method. Note that the label 'Lin-Kernighan' is an oft heard misnomer for 2-opt. Lin-Kernighan is actually a more general method.
k-opt heuristic: Take a given tour and delete k mutually disjoint edges. Reassemble the remaining fragments into a tour, leaving no disjoint subtours (that is, don't connect a fragment's endpoints together). This in effect simplifies the TSP under consideration into a much simpler problem. Each fragment endpoint can be connected to 2k − 2 other possibilities: of 2k total fragment endpoints available, the two endpoints of the fragment under consideration are disallowed. Such a constrained 2k-city TSP can then be solved with brute force methods to find the least-cost recombination of the original fragments. The k-opt technique is a special case of the V-opt or variable-opt technique. The most popular of the k-opt methods are 3-opt, and these were introduced by Shen Lin of Bell Labs in 1965. There is a special case of 3-opt where the edges are not disjoint (two of the edges are adjacent to one another). In practice, it is often possible to achieve substantial improvement over 2-opt without the combinatorial cost of the general 3-opt by restricting the 3-changes to this special subset where two of the removed edges are adjacent. This so called two-and-a-half-opt typically falls roughly midway between 2-opt and 3-opt both in terms of the quality of tours achieved and the time required to achieve those tours.
V'-opt heuristic: The variable-opt method is related to, and a generalization of the k-opt method. Whereas the k-opt methods remove a fixed number (k) of edges from the original tour, the variable-opt methods do not fix the size of the edge set to remove. Instead they grow the set as the search process continues. The best known method in this family is the Lin-Kernighan method (mentioned above as a misnomer for 2-opt). Shen Lin and Brian Kernighan first published their method in 1972, and it was the most reliable heuristic for solving travelling salesman problems for nearly two decades. More advanced variable-opt methods were developed at Bell Labs in the late 1980s by David Johnson and his research team. These methods (sometimes called Lin-Kernighan-Johnson) build on the Lin-Kernighan method, adding ideas from tabu search and evolutionary computing. The basic Lin-Kernighan technique gives results that are guaranteed to be at least 3-opt. The Lin-Kernighan-Johnson methods compute a Lin-Kernighan tour, and then perturb the tour by what has been described as a mutation that removes at least four edges and reconnecting the tour in a different way, then v-opting the new tour. The mutation is often enough to move the tour from the local well identified by Lin-Kernighan. V-opt methods are widely considered the most powerful heuristics for the problem, and are able to address special cases, such as the Hamilton Cycle Problem and other non-metric TSPs that other heuristics fail on. For many years Lin-Kernighan-Johnson had identified optimal solutions for all TSPs where an optimal solution was known and had identified the best known solutions for all other TSPs on which the method had been tried. Iterative improvement
TSP is a touchstone for many general heuristics devised for combinatorial optimisation such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, Tabu search, and ant colony optimization.

Optimised Markov chain algorithms which utilise local searching heuristic sub-algorithms can find a route extremely close to the optimal route for 700 to 800 cities.
Random path change algorithms are currently the state-of-the-art search algorithms and work up to 100,000 cities. The concept is quite simple: Choose a random path, choose four nearby points, swap their ways to create a new random path, while in parallel decreasing the upper bound of the path length. If repeated until a certain number of trials of random path changes fail due to the upper bound, one has found a local minimum with high probability, and further it is a global minimum with high probability (where high means that the rest probability decreases exponentially in the size of the problem - thus for 10,000 or more nodes, the chances of failure is negligible). Randomised improvement
Suppose that the number of towns is = 60. For a random search process, this is like having a deck of cards numbered 1, 2, 3, ... 59, 60 where the number of permutations is of the same order of magnitude as the total number of atoms in the known universe. If the hometown is not counted the number of possible tours becomes 60*59*58*...*4*3 (about 10. See also Goldberg, 1989.

Example letting the inversion operator find a good solution
Artificial intelligence researcher Marco Dorigo described in 1997 a method of heuristically generating "good solutions" to the TSP using a simulation of an ant colony called ACS.
ACS sends out a large number of virtual ant agents to explore many possible routes on the map. Each ant probabilistically chooses the next city to visit based on a heuristic combining the distance to the city and the amount of virtual pheromone deposited on the edge to the city. The ants explore, depositing pheromone on each edge that they cross, until they have all completed a tour. At this point the ant which completed the shortest tour deposits virtual pheromone along its complete tour route (global trail updating). The amount of pheromone deposited is inversely proportional to the tour length; the shorter the tour, the more it deposits.
After a sufficient number of rounds, the shortest tour found will be, heuristically, close to the optimum length. According to Dorigo, "ACS finds results which are at least as good as, and often better than, those found by the other methods," particularly on asymmetric instances, but this referred only to methods already known at that time.

Ant colony optimization

Special cases
A very natural restriction of the TSP is the triangle inequality. That is, for any 3 cities A, B and C, the distance between A and C must be at most the distance from A to B plus the distance from B to C. Most natural instances of TSP satisfy this constraint.
In this case, there is a constant-factor approximation algorithm (due to Christofides, 1975) which always finds a tour of length at most 1.5 times the shortest tour. In the next paragraphs, we explain a weaker (but simpler) algorithm which finds a tour of length at most twice the shortest tour.
The length of the minimum spanning tree of the network is a natural lower bound for the length of the optimal route. In the TSP with triangle inequality case it is possible to prove upper bounds in terms of the minimum spanning tree and design an algorithm that has a provable upper bound on the length of the route. The first published (and the simplest) example follows.
It is easy to prove that the last step works. Moreover, thanks to the triangle inequality, each skipping at Step 4 is in fact a shortcut, i.e., the length of the cycle does not increase. Hence it gives us a TSP tour no more than twice as long as the optimal one.
The Christofides algorithm follows a similar outline but combines the minimum spanning tree with a solution of another problem, minimum-weight perfect matching. This gives a TSP tour which is at most 1.5 times the optimal. It is a long-standing (since 1975) open problem to improve 1.5 to a smaller constant. It is known, however, that there is no polynomial time algorithm that finds a tour of length at most 1/219 more than optimal, unless P = NP (Papadimitriou and Vempala, 2000). In the case of the bounded metrics it is known that there is no polynomial time algorithm that constructs a tour of length at most 1/388 more than optimal, unless P = NP (Engebretsen and Karpinski, 2001). The best known polynomial time approximation algorithm for the TSP problem with distances one and two finds a tour of length at most 1/7 more than optimal (Berman and Karpinski, 2006).
The Christofides algorithm was one of the first approximation algorithms, and was in part responsible for drawing attention to approximation algorithms as a practical approach to intractable problems. As a matter of fact, the term "algorithm" was not commonly extended to approximation algorithms until later. At the time of publication, the Christofides algorithm was referred to as the Christofides heuristic.

Construct the minimum spanning tree.
Duplicate all its edges. That is, wherever there is an edge from u to v, add a second edge from u to v. This gives us an Eulerian graph.
Find a Eulerian cycle in it. Clearly, its length is twice the length of the tree.
Convert the Eulerian cycle into the Hamiltonian one in the following way: walk along the Eulerian cycle, and each time you are about to come into an already visited vertex, skip it and try to go to the next one (along the Eulerian cycle). Triangle inequality and the Christofides algorithm
Euclidean TSP, or planar TSP, is the TSP with the distance being the ordinary Euclidean distance. Although the problem still remains NP-hard, it is known that there exists a subexponential time algorithm for it. Moreover, many heuristics work better.
Euclidean TSP is a particular case of TSP with triangle inequality, since distances in plane obey triangle inequality. However, it seems to be easier than general TSP with triangle inequality. For example, the minimum spanning tree of the graph associated with an instance of Euclidean TSP is a Euclidean minimum spanning tree, and so can be computed in expected O(n log n) time for n points (considerably less than the number of edges). This enables the simple 2-approximation algorithm for TSP with triangle inequality above to operate more quickly.
In general, for any c > 0, there is a polynomial-time algorithm that finds a tour of length at most (1 + 1/c) times the optimal for geometric instances of TSP in O(cn log n) time; this is called a polynomial-time approximation scheme and is due to Sanjeev Arora. In practice, heuristics with weaker guarantees continue to be used.

Euclidean TSP
In most cases, the distance between two nodes in the TSP network is the same in both directions. The case where the distance from A to B is not equal to the distance from B to A is called asymmetric TSP. A practical application of an asymmetric TSP is route optimisation using street-level routing (asymmetric due to one-way streets, slip-roads and motorways).

Asymmetric TSP
Solving an asymmetric TSP graph can be somewhat complex. The following is a 3x3 matrix containing all possible path weights between the nodes A, B and C. One option is to turn an asymmetric matrix of size N into a symmetric matrix of size 2N, doubling the complexity.
To double the size, each of the nodes in the graph is duplicated, creating a second ghost node. Using duplicate points with very low weights, such as -∞, provides a cheap route "linking" back to the real node and allowing symmetric evaluation to continue. The original 3x3 matrix shown above is visible in the bottom left and the inverse of the original in the top-right. Both copies of the matrix have had their diagonals replaced by the low-cost hop paths, represented by -∞.
The original 3x3 matrix would produce two Hamiltonian cycles (a path that visits every node once), namely A-B-C-A [score 12] and A-C-B-A [score 9]. Evaluating the 6x6 symmetric version of the same problem now produces many paths, including A-A'-B-B'-C-C'-A, A-B'-C-A'-A, A-A'-B-C'-A [all score 9-∞].
The important thing about each new sequence is that there will be an alternation between dashed (A',B',C') and un-dashed nodes (A,B,C) and that the link to "jump" between any related pair (A-A') is effectively free. A version of the algorithm could use any weight for the A-A' path, as long as that weight is lower than all other path weights present in the graph. As the path weight to "jump" must effectively be "free", the value zero (0) could be used to represent this cost— if zero is not being used for another purpose already (such as designating invalid paths). In the two examples above, non-existent paths between nodes are shown as a blank square.

Solving by conversion to Symmetric TSP
The TSP, in particular the Euclidean variant of the problem, has attracted the attention of researchers in cognitive psychology. It is observed that humans are able to produce good quality solutions quickly. The first issue of the Journal of Problem Solving is devoted to the topic of human performance on TSP.

Human performance on TSP
Many quick algorithms yield approximate TSP solution for large city number. To have an idea of the precision of an approximation, one should measure the resulted path length and compare it to the exact path length. To find out the exact path length, there are 3 approaches:

find a lower bound of it,
find an upper bound of it with CPU time T, do extrapolation on T to infinity so result in a reasonable guess of the exact value, or
solve the exact value without solving the city sequence. TSP path length
Consider N points are randomly distributed in one unit square, with N>>1. A simple lower bound of the shortest path length is $frac{1}{2} sqrt{N}$, obtained by considering each point connects to its nearest neighbor which is $left.{frac{1}{2}}right/sqrt{N}$ distance away on average.
Another lower bound is $left({frac{1}{2} + frac{3}{4}}right) frac{sqrt{N}}{2}$, obtained by considering each point j connects to j's nearest neighbor, and j's second nearest neighbor connects to j. Since j's nearest neighbor is (1/2)/sqrt(N) distance away; j's second nearest neighbor is (3/4)/sqrt(N) distance away on average.

David S. Johnson had got a lower bound by experiment
Christine L. Valenzuela and Antonia J. Jones have also explored a better lower bound by experiment Lower bound

The board game Elfenland resembles the travelling salesman problem. Notes

D. L. Applegate, R. E. Bixby, V. Chvátal and W. J. Cook (2006). The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Computational Study. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12993-8.
E. L. Lawler and Jan Karel Lenstra and A. H. G. Rinnooy Kan and D. B. Shmoys (1985). The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Guided Tour of Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-90413-9.
G. Gutin and A. P. Punnen (2006). The Traveling Salesman Problem and Its Variations. Springer. ISBN 0-387-44459-9.
G. B. Dantzig, R. Fulkerson, and S. M. Johnson, Solution of a large-scale traveling salesman problem, Operations Research 2 (1954), pp. 393-410.
S. Arora. "Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Euclidean Traveling Salesman and other Geometric Problems". Journal of ACM, 45 (1998), pp. 753-782.
P. Berman, M. Karpinski, "8/7-Approximation Algorithm for (1,2)-TSP", Proc. 17th ACM-SIAM SODA (2006), pp. 641-648.
N. Christofides, Worst-case analysis of a new heuristic for the travelling salesman problem, Report 388, Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon University, 1976.
L. Engebretsen, M. Karpinski, Approximation hardness of TSP with bounded metrics, Proceedings of 28th ICALP (2001), LNCS 2076, Springer 2001, pp. 201-212.
J. Mitchell. "Guillotine subdivisions approximate polygonal subdivisions: A simple polynomial-time approximation scheme for geometric TSP, k-MST, and related problems", SIAM Journal on Computing, 28 (1999), pp. 1298–1309.
S. Rao, W. Smith. Approximating geometrical graphs via 'spanners' and 'banyans'. Proc. 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, 1998, pp. 540-550.
C. H. Papadimitriou and Santosh Vempala, "On the approximability of the traveling salesman problem", Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, 2000.
Daniel J. Rosenkrantz and Richard E. Stearns and Phlip M. Lewis II (1977). "An Analysis of Several Heuristics for the Traveling Salesman Problem". SIAM J. Comput. 6: 563–581.
D. S. Johnson and L. A. McGeoch, The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Case Study in Local Optimization, Local Search in Combinatorial Optimisation, E. H. L. Aarts and J.K. Lenstra (ed), John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 1997, pp. 215-310.
Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. Introduction to Algorithms, Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN 0-262-03293-7. Section 35.2: The traveling-salesman problem, pp. 1027–1033.
Michael R. Garey and David S. Johnson (1979). Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1045-5.  A2.3: ND22–24, pp.211–212.
MacGregor, J. N., & Ormerod, T. (1996). Human performance on the traveling salesman problem. Perception & Psychophysics, 58(4), pp. 527–539.
Vickers, D., Butavicius, M., Lee, M., & Medvedev, A. (2001). Human performance on visually presented traveling salesman problems. Psychological Research, 65, pp. 34–45.
William Cook, Daniel Espinoza, Marcos Goycoole (2006). Computing with domino-parity inequalities for the TSP. INFORMS Journal on Computing. Accepted.
Goldberg, D. E. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization & Machine Learning. Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989.

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Directmedia Publishing is a German publishing house created in January 1995 by Ralf Szymanski and Erwin Jurschitza as a publisher of digital media. The emphasis of the publishing house's content lies within the field of digital libraries, particularly scientific collections of texts, and encyclopaedias.
In co-operation with the Reclam publishing house in Stuttgart, Directmedia Publishing published the series Reclam Klassiker auf CD-ROM (Reclam classical authors on CD-ROM), which presents individual works of the German language literary canon. The first German language Wikipedia CD was published by Directmedia Publishing in October 2004, and was followed by a DVD-ROM (and CD-ROM) in April 2005. In the first ten days the second edition was presold, 10,000 copies were purchased, 8,000 on Amazon.de.
Directmedia's sister enterprise, The Yorck Project (based in Yorck road, Berlin), specialises in the publication of CDs or DVDs with extensive picture collections including art, photography and historical illustrations. The software used to display content runs under Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, with a beta version for Linux also available. In April 2005, Directmedia contributed scans of 10,000 public domain paintings to the Wikimedia Commons project.

Wednesday, September 19, 2007

is a Dutch football striker, currently playing for Cardiff City.

Club career
Hasselbaink began his footballing career in the Netherlands, first with Telstar for whom he played until 1991, and then AZ Alkmaar. He stayed at Alkmaar for three seasons before being released by the club and ended up playing non-league football.

Netherlands
He signed for Portuguese side Campomaiorense in August 1995 but, after only one season, Hasselbaink was signed by Boavista where he first came to prominence. He scored 20 goals in 29 league appearances for the club as well as helping them win the Portuguese Cup.

Portugal
His prolific goalscoring caught the attention of several European clubs, and he was transferred to English Premier League side Leeds United for £2 million in June 1997. He continued his prolific goalscoring record with Leeds, netting 23 goals in all competitions in his debut season, and 21 in the next, helping Leeds finish 4th in the Premiership. His 18 league goals that season made him the Premier League's joint top goalscorer.

England
After rejecting a new contract offer from Leeds and subsequently requesting a transfer, Hasselbaink was sold to Spanish club Atlético Madrid for £12 million in 1999. He adapted to the Spanish game well and scored prolifically, this time scoring 24 goals in 34 La Liga appearances and 32 in all competitions, though the club were still relegated.

Back to England
Hasselbaink made his debut for the Dutch national side at a late age. His time as an international suffered due to fierce competition for the strikers' role, with the presence of Dennis Bergkamp, Patrick Kluivert, Ruud van Nistelrooy, Pierre van Hooijdonk and Roy Makaay, greatly limiting his opportunities.
In 2004 Hasselbaink decided to quit the Dutch national team and no longer made himself available. His most noteworthy accomplishment as an international was playing at the 1998 World Cup in France, and having started for the Netherlands in their opening game against Belgium.

In popular culture

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

History
While the Cumans were gradually assimilated into eastern European populations, their trace can still be found in placenames as widespread as the city of Kumanovo in the Northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, Comăneşti in Romania and Comana in Dobruja.
The Cumans settled in Hungary had their own self-government there in a territory that bore their name, Kunság, that survived until the 19th century. There, the name of the Cumans (Kun) is still preserved in county names such as Bács-Kiskun and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and town names such as Kiskunhalas and Kunszentmiklós.
The Cumans were organized into four tribes in Hungary (Kolbasz / Olas in the big Cumania around Karcag, and the other three in the lesser Cumania).
The other Cuman group in Hungary is the paloc group, the name deriving from the Slav Polovetz. They live in the Northern Hungary and current Slovakia and have a specific dialect. Their Cuman origin is not documented as the other two Cuman territory but their name derives from the above word. They have a very special "a" sound close to Turkish "a", unlike Hungarian pronunciation.
Unfortunately, the Cuman language disappeared from Hungary in the 17 century, possibly following the Turkish occupation.
Their 19 century biographer, Gyarfas Istvan in 1870 was on the opinion that they speak Hungarian together with the Iazyges population. Despite this mistake he has the best overview on the subject concerning details of material used. [1]
Also, toponyms of Cuman language origin can be found especially in the Romanian counties of Vaslui and Galaţi, including the names of both counties.
In the countries where the Cumans were assimilated, family surnames derived from the words for "Cuman" (such as coman or kun, "kuman") are not uncommon. Among the people that have such a name are Romanian gymnast Nadia Comăneci, Romanian poet Otilia Coman (Ana Blandiana), contemporary painter Nicolai Comănescu and Romanian football player Gigel Coman. Traces of the Cumans are also the Bulgarian surname Kumanov (feminine Kumanova), its Macedonian variant Kumanovski (feminine Kumanovska) and the widespread Hungarian surname Kun (to further color the topic: this name also was often preferred for Hungarizing Jewish-German name Kohn/Cohen/ so less related to the topic, like for Bela Kun, famous / infamous 1919 Communist revolutionaire / dictator).
The Cumans appear in Russian culture in the The Tale of Igor's Campaign and a set of "Polovtsian Dances" in Alexander Borodin's opera Prince Igor.

Cumania
Kipchak
Crimean Tatars
Cumania
Pechenegs
Turkic peoples
Mongol invasion of Rus
Tatar invasions
Crimean Karaites, an ethnic group possibly with Cuman origins
Battle of the Stugna River
Battle of Levounion

Friday, September 14, 2007

Or Image search engine.
Image search is a kind of search engine specialised on finding pictures, images, animations etc. Like the text search, image search is an information retrieval system designed to help find information on the Internet and it allows the user to ask for images etc. using keywords or search phrases and to receive a set of thumbnail images, sorted by relevancy.
Specialized search engines, like in the fields of image search, are among the fastest growing search services on the internet. In 2005 alone the number of image searches increased by 91% (Nielsen/NetRatings 2006-03-31).
Many of the sites that today offer image search uses a service powered by one of the big three; Google, Picsearch or Yahoo.

History
Google at that time on its way on becoming one of the most popular text search engines, naturally had an advantage when, in the summer of 2001, launching their image search as a complement. Their users soon found the new feature and understood to value it.
In addition to their own website, Google offers their image search service to license customers such as other search engines and portals to enable them to complete their own search package. Google image search is today one of the world's largest providers of image search.

The newcomer Picsearch was founded in 2000, and built their business entirely on an image search engine, striving to be the world's first large scale image search engine. Launching their image search in the summer of 2001, at the same time as Google, they soon grew popular among the users on the Internet.
In addition to their own website, Picsearch offers their image search service to license customers such as other search engines and portals to enable them to complete their own search package. Picsearch is today one of the world's largest providers of image search, and is the world's first carbon free search engine.

Thursday, September 13, 2007

Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. It is a prestigious American medical school located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission Hill neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
As of Fall 2006, HMS is home to 616 students in the M.D. program, 435 in the Ph.D. program, and 155 in the M.D.-Ph.D program. HMS M.D.-Ph.D program allows a student to receive an M.D. from HMS and a Ph.D from either Harvard or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (see Medical Scientist Training Program).
The school has a large and distinguished faculty to support its missions of education, research, and clinical care. These faculty hold appointments in the basic science departments on the HMS Quadrangle, and in the clinical departments located in multiple Harvard-affiliated hospitals and institutions in Boston. There are approximately 2,900 full- and part-time voting faculty members consisting of assistant, associate, and full professors, and over 5,000 full or part-time non-voting instructors.
Prospective students apply to one of two tracks to the M.D. degree. New Pathway, the larger of the two programs, emphasizes problem-based learning. HST, operated by the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, emphasizes medical research. Starting with the class of 2010, the New Pathway curriculum is being revised in an effort led by Dean of Medical Education Jules Dienstag.
The current acting Dean of the medical school is Dr. Barbara McNeil, M.D., founder and Chair of the Department of Health Care Policy and a radiologist, following the retirement of Dr. Joseph B. Martin at the end of June 2007. According to a July 2007 news release by the Harvard Gazette, Dr. Jeffrey S. Flier, Chief Academic Officer of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and a diabetes specialist, will become the new Dean on September 1st, 2007.

History
These three institutions are often referred to as the "Harvard Trinity" by students and faculty. This is because their affiliations have been in place for the greatest period of time and every department is directly affiliated with the medical school.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital Major teaching affiliates

Children's Hospital Boston
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Mount Auburn Hospital
Joslin Diabetes Center
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
McLean Hospital
Cambridge Hospital
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital
The Forsyth Institute
VA Boston Healthcare System Teaching affiliates

Student life
Every winter second year students at HMS write, direct and perform a full length musical parody, lampooning Harvard, their professors, and themselves. 2007 was the Centennial performance as the Class of 2009 presented "Joseph Martin and the Amazing Technicolor White Coat"

Societies
In Samuel Shem's book, The House of God, the medical school and its students are referred to as BMS (Best Medical School/Students). The novel is set in the famed Beth Israel Deaconess hospital in Boston where the author spent his internship year.

In fiction

Tenley Albright - figure skater
William French Anderson - geneticist
Christian B. Anfinsen - chemist
Herbert Benson - cardiologist
Henry Bryant - physician
Rafael Campo - poet
Ethan Canin - author
William B. Castle - hematologist
George C. S. Choate - physician
Aram Chobanian - President of Boston University (2003-present)
Stanley Cobb - neurologist
Ernest Codman - physician
Michael Crichton - author
Harvey Cushing - neurosurgeon
Allan S. Detsky - physician
James Madison DeWolf - soldier; physician
Peter Diamandis - entrepreneur
Daniel DiLorenzo - entrepreneur; neurosurgeon; inventor
Thomas Dwight - anatomist
Edward Evarts - neuroscientist
Sidney Farber - pathologist
Paul Farmer - infectious disease physician; global health
John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald - Mayor of Boston (1906-08; 1910-14)
Judah Folkman - scientist
Bill Frist - U.S. Senator (1995-2007)
Atul Gawande - surgeon, author
George Lincoln Goodale - botanist
Ernest Gruening - Governor of the Alaska Territory (1939-53); U.S. Senator (1959-69)
I. Kathleen Hagen - academic, murderer
Dean Hamer - geneticist
Alice Hamilton - first female faculty member at Harvard Medical School.
Michael R. Harrison - pediatrician
Bernadine Healy - Director of the National Institutes of Health (1991-93); CEO of the American Red Cross (1999-2001)
Lawrence Joseph Henderson - biochemist
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. - physician; poet
William James - philosopher
Mildred Fay Jefferson activist; first African American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School.
Elliott P. Joslin - diabetololgist
Nathan Cooley Keep - dentist
Jim Kim - physician
Charles Krauthammer - columnist
Aristides Leão - biologist
Philip Leder - geneticist
Simon LeVay - neuroscientist
Joseph Lovell - Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1818-36)
Karl Menninger - psychiatrist
Randell Mills - scientist
Joseph Murray - surgeon
Amos Nourse - U.S. Senator (1857)
David Page - biologist
Morton Prince - neurologist
Alexander Rich - biophysicist
Oswald Hope Robertson - medical scientist
Wilfredo Santa-Gómez - author
Felicia Stewart - physician
James B. Sumner - chemist
Helen B. Taussig - cardiologist
John Templeton, Jr - president of the John Templeton Foundation
E. Donnall Thomas - physician
Lewis Thomas - essayist
George Eman Vaillant - psychiatrist
Milton Viederman - psychiatrist
Mark Vonnegut - author
Joseph Warren - soldier
Andrew Weil - proponent of alternative medicine
Paul Dudley White - cardiologist
Leonard Wood - Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army (1910-14); Governor-General of the Philippines (1921-27)
David Wu - Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1999-present)
Jeffries Wyman - anatomist Fictional alumni

List of Harvard University people
Harvard School of Dental Medicine

Wednesday, September 12, 2007

National team caps and goals correct as of 23 June 2006. * Appearances (Goals)
Karim Essediri (Arabic: كريم اصديري) (born July 29, 1979) is a French-Tunisian footballer. He currently plays for Lillestrøm SK in the Norwegian Premier League.
Before joining Lillestrøm SK in 2006, he played for Rosenborg B.K., Tromsø I.L., Club Meaux (France), Red Star 93 (France), and Club Africain (Tunisia).
Essediri experienced a tough start at Tromsø, and was given partial blame for the club's 2001 relegation. The following year he was lent out to the another Norwegian club F.K. Bodø/Glimt. When he returned to Tromsø, he was not considered first-team material. However, the arrival of Per Mathias Høgmo as head coach made Essediri the starting right winger in Høgmo's counter attacking style of play. Essediri's pace made him an important figure in setting up Tromsø I.L.'s counter attacks, and he ended the 2004 season being among the top three for assists in the Premier League. Essediri had successfully turned from scapegoat in 2001 to hero in 2004.
Following his success at Tromsø, Essediri was picked for several matches for Tunisia, both in the World Cup 2006, and the 2005 Confederations Cup.
He speaks French, Arabic and Norwegian.
1 Boumnijel • 2 Essediri • 3 Haggui • 4 Yahia • 5 Jaziri • 6 Trabelsi • 7 Guemamdia • 8 Nafti • 9 Chikhaoui • 10 Ghodhbane • 11 Santos • 12 Mnari • 13 Bouazizi • 14 Chedli • 15 Jaïdi • 16 Nefzi • 17 Ben Saada • 18 Jemmali • 19 Ayari • 20 Namouchi • 21 Saidi • 22 Kasraoui • 23 Melliti • Coach: Lemerre

Tuesday, September 11, 2007

Baron Charles de Geer (the family is usually known as De Geer with a capitalized "De"; Finspång in Risinge 30 January 1720Stockholm 7 March 1778) was a Swedish industrialist and entomologist.

Life
De Geer was a great admirer of Réaumur. Hence his modelling Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes on Réaumur's work of the same title. It, too, is in French, similarly in large quarto and with the same decorations. The Mémoires deal with 1,466 species, treating life histories, food and reproduction based on careful, patient investigation and analysis of existing literature. There are 238 copper plates. The descriptions are acutely observed.
In nomenclature de Geer was less progressive; Volume 1 of the Mémoires (1752) was too early to employ the binomial system invented by his fellow Swede Linnaeus. Volume 2 (1771) does not use it, and in Volume 3 (1773) the system is only partially employed. Here the specific name is placed in square brackets and is followed by a long diagnosis in the older style. He also changed many of Linnaeus' names. It seems that this was a concession to usage as in the 1760s and 1770s the Linnean system became increasingly employed, not because de Geer liked the new system. They had differences "not everyone sees things in the same light, and people have the weakness of frequently being too fond of their own opinions" (letter to Linnaeus 16 October, 1772) and "if here and there I am stll of a different opinion, I am now, as before, asking you not to take it amiss" (letter to Linnaeus 23 February 1774).

Monday, September 10, 2007

Samuel A. Weems (December 12, 1936January 25, 2003

Friday, September 7, 2007

Coordinates: 51°03′48″N 1°18′31″W﻿ / ﻿51.0632, -1.3085
Winchester or Winton (archaic) is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. It is the seat of the City of Winchester local government district, which covers a much larger area, and is also the administrative capital and county town of Hampshire. Winchester was formerly the capital of England, during the 10th and early 11th centuries, and before that the capital of Wessex. The city is at the western end of the South Downs with the scenic River Itchen running through it. The city is served by trains running from London Waterloo, Weymouth, Brighton, Portsmouth, Southampton and the North. According to a channel 4 survey program in October 2006, Winchester is the best place to live in the UK.

Notable buildings

Main article: Winchester Cathedral Cathedral Close

Main article: Wolvesey Castle Wolvesey Castle and Palace

Main article: Winchester Castle Winchester Castle

Main article: Winchester College Winchester College

Main article: Hospital of St Cross Hospital of St Cross
Other important historic buildings include the Guildhall dating from 1871, the Royal Hampshire County Hospital and one of the city's several water mills driven by the various channels of the River Itchen that run through the city centre. Winchester City Mill, has recently been restored, and is again milling corn by water power. The mill is owned by the National Trust.

Other buildings

History

Main article: Venta Belgarum Early history
The city has historic importance as it replaced Dorchester-on-Thames as the defacto capital of the ancient kingdom of Wessex in about 686 after King Caedwalla of Wessex defeated King Atwald of Wight. Although it was not the only town to have been the capital, it was established by King Egbert as the main city in his kingdom in 827. Saint Swithun was Bishop of Winchester in the mid-9th century. The Saxon street plan laid out by Alfred is still evident today: a cross shaped street system which conformed to the standard town planning system of the day - overlaying the pre-existing Roman street plan (incorporating the ecclesiastical quarter in the south-east; the judicial quarter in the south-west; the tradesmen in the north-east). The town was part of a series of fortifications along the south coast. Built by Alfred to protect the Kingdom, they were known as 'burhs'. The boundary of the old town is visible in places (a wooden barricade surrounded by ditches in Saxon times) now a stone wall. Four main gates were positioned in the north, south, east and west plus the additional Durngate and King's Gate. Winchester remained the capital of Wessex, and then England, until some time after the Norman Conquest when the capital was moved to London.

Anglo-Saxon times
A serious fire in the city in 1141 accelerated its decline. However, William of Wykeham (1320-1404) played an important role in the city's restoration. As Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral, and he founded Winchester College as well as New College, Oxford. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline.
The famous novelist Jane Austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817 and is buried in the cathedral. The Romantic poet John Keats stayed in Winchester from mid August through to October 1819. It was in Winchester that Keats wrote Isabella, St. Agnes' Eve and Lamia. Parts of Hyperion and the five-act poetic tragedy Otho The Great were also written in Winchester.

Medieval and later times
The City Museum located on the corner of Minster Street and The Square contains much information on the history of Winchester.

Further learning
Winchester's association football club, called Winchester City F.C., was founded in 1884 and has the motto "Many in Men, One in Spirit", and currently play in the Sydenhams Wessex League Division 1.
Winchester also has a rugby team named Winchester RFC and a thriving athletic club called Winchester and District AC.
Winchester has a thriving successful Hockey Club (http://www.winchesterhc.co.uk/), with ten men's and three ladies' teams catering to all ages and abilities.
Winchester women also have successful sports teams with Winchester City Women FC currently playing in the Hampshire County League Division 1 and recently went through a league campaign unbeaten. The club caters for players of all ability and ages (www.winchestercitywomen.co.uk) The city has a growing roller hockey team which trains at River Park Leisure Centre.
Lawn bowls is played at several greens during the summer months and at Riverside Indoor Bowling Club during the winter.
Barnsley midfielder Brian Howard was born in Winchester.

Sport
There are numerous educational institutions in Winchester.
There are three state secondary schools: Kings' School Winchester, The Westgate School, and Henry Beaufort, all of which have excellent reputations. The sixth form Peter Symonds College is the main college that serves Winchester; it is rated amongst the top and the largest sixth form colleges in the UK.
Among privately owned preparatory schools, there are The Pilgrims' School Winchester, Twyford, Prince's Mead , St Swithuns etc. Winchester College, which accepts students from ages 13 to 18, is one of the most well-known public schools in Britain and many of its pupils leave for well-respected universities.
The University of Winchester (formerly King Alfred's College) serves as Winchester's primary university. It is located on a purpose built campus near the city centre. The Winchester School of Art is part of the University of Southampton.