Blog Archive

Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Cambridge University Footlights Dramatic Club, commonly referred to simply as the Footlights, is an amateur theatrical club in Cambridge, England, run by the students of Cambridge University and now also the Anglia Ruskin University (formerly Anglia Polytechnic University). It was founded in 1883.
It grew in prominence in the 1960s, as a hotbed of comedy and satire, and continues to produce the regular and very popular Smokers at the ADC Theatre - an informal mixture of sketches and stand-up.
Footlights also produces regular plays and sketch shows, such as this year's sell-out Spring Revue Interconti-mental and the current tour show WhamBam.

Footlights President

1886 - F.W. Mortimer
1887 - J.J. Withers
1888 - W.S. Gilbert
1890 - Oscar Browning
1891 - C.M. Rae
1892 - Oscar Browning
1894 - Oscar Browning
1895 - Oscar Browning
1896 - H.C. Pollitt
1897 - H.C. Pollitt
1898 - M.V. Leveaux
1899 - S.W. Burgess
1900 - O.J. Goedecker
1901 - R.J. White
1902 - E.K. Fordham
1904 - G.S. Heathcote
1905 - G.S. Heathcote
1906 - H. Rottenburg
1907 - H. Rottenburg
1908 - J.S. Murray
1909 - L.B. Tillard
1910 - A.R. Inglis
1911 - A.R. Inglis
1912 - P.D. Ravenscroft
1913 - C.A.A. Douglas Hamilton
1914 - M. Cutherston
1919 - B.D. Nicholson
1920 - B.D. Nicholson
1921 - M.D. Lyon
1922 - M.D. Lyon
1923 - F.E. Powell
1924 - J.A.C. Barradale
1925 - H.J. Warrender
1926 - J.D. Houison Craufurd
1927 - H.C. Martineau
1928 - H.E.R. Mitchell
1929 - J. Fell Clark
1930 - J.C. Byrom
1931 - R.S. Hill
1932 - P.E. Lyon
1933 - J.A. Coates
1934 - Lord Killanin
1935 - Harry Lee
1936 - Peter Crane
1937 - Albert E.P. Robison
1938 - P.B. Meyer
1939 - Sir Robert Ricketts
1947 - D.C. Orders
1948 - D.C. Orders
1949 - Simon Phipps
1950 - Adrian Vale
1951 - Ian Kellie
1952 - Andrew Davidson
1953 - Peter Firth
1954 - Leslie Bricusse
1955 - Brian Marber
1956 - Tim Berington
1957 - Allan Mitchell
1958 - Peter Stroud
1959 - Adrian Slade
1960 - Peter Cook
1961 - Peter Bellwood
1962 - Robert Atkins
1963 - Tim Brooke-Taylor
1964 - Graeme Garden
1965 - Eric Idle
1966 - Andrew Mayer
1967 - Clive James
1968 - Jonathan James-Moore
1969 - Barry Brown
1970 - Adrian Edwards
1971 - Richard MacKenna
1972 - Steve Thorn
1973 - Robert Benton
1974 - Jon Canter
1975 - Clive Anderson
1976 - Chris Keightley
1977 - Jimmy Mulville
1978 - Martin Bergman
1979 - Robert Bathurst
1980 - Jan Ravens
1981 - Hugh Laurie
1982 - Tony Slattery
1983 - Neil Mullarkey
1984 - Nick Hancock
1985 - Kathryn Crew
1986 - Nick Golson
1987 - Tim Scott
1988 - Peter Bradshaw
1989 - Roland Kenyon
1990 - Henry Naylor
1991 - Sue Perkins
1992 - Dan Gaster
1993 - Mark Evans
1994 - Robert Thorogood
1995 - Charlie Harthill
1996 - David Mitchell
1997 - Sarah Moule
1998 - Richard Ayoade
1999 - Kevin Baker
2000 - Matt Green
2001 - James Morris
2002 - Ed Weeks
2003 - Stefan Golaszewski
2004 - Ed Riches
2005 - Raph Shirley
2006 - Simon Bird
2007 - Tom Sharpe
2008 - Sam Sword Footlights Footlights book

The Oxford Revue

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Al McGuire
Al McGuire (born September 7, 1928 in New York City - died January 26, 2001 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) coached the Marquette University men's basketball team from 1964 to 1977. He compiled impressive numbers throughout his coaching career, resulting in his induction to the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1992, and was also well known for his colorful personality.
McGuire was born poor, the son of an Irish immigrant saloonkeeper. He played three years of basketball at St. John's Prep., Queens, New York (graduated 1947), and went on to star at St. John's University (1947-1951), where he played for four years and captained the 1951 team that posted a 26-5 mark and finished third in the NIT.
After college, McGuire played in the NBA, first with the New York Knicks (1951-52) and then with the Baltimore Bullets (1954). While with the Knicks, he once famously pleaded with his coach for playing time, with this guarantee: "I can stop (Bob) Cousy." Inserted into the lineup, McGuire proceeded to foul Cousy on his next six trips down the court.
McGuire began his illustrious coaching career as an assistant at Dartmouth College (1955-1957). He then took his first head coaching job at Belmont Abbey College (1957-1964), where he wooed high school players off the streets of New York by showing them a picture of the quad at Duke and telling them it was really Belmont Abbey. McGuire later became head coach at Marquette University in 1964 where he enjoyed remarkable success, including the NIT Championship in 1970 and a Final Four appearance in 1974.
Helped by assistant coach Rick Majerus, who would become a successful college coach in his own right, McGuire led the Warriors to the university's only NCAA basketball championship in 1977, his final season as a head coach. McGuire's Marquette team, led by Butch Lee and Jerome Whitehead, defeated Dean Smith's North Carolina Tar Heels for the title, just two days after Whitehead received a full court pass then subsequently made a last second shot (exactly the same style of shot made by Christian Laettner against Kentucky fifteen years later) propelling Marquette past UNC-Charlotte in the national semifinals. The thrilling weekend in Atlanta's Omni Coliseum provided a happy sendoff to one of the most joyful and charismatic figures in college basketball history.
After retiring from coaching, McGuire became a popular commentator for NBC Sports and CBS Sports. McGuire's on-air arguments with then-NBC colleague Billy Packer helped to increase the popularity of college basketball across the United States. McGuire was courtside for the landmark 1979 championship game between Indiana State and Michigan State, which is remembered as a game that vastly enhanced the appeal of college basketball. Reflecting on the event ten years later, McGuire said that the '79 title game "put college basketball on its afterburner."
McGuire died after a long bout with leukemia on January 26, 2001, aged 72, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
The Al McGuire Center, which includes a statue in his honor, opened on the Marquette campus in 2004.
Al McGuire's former television broadcast partner and friend, Dick Enberg, penned a one-man theatrical play entitled "McGuire". It debuted at Marquette University's Helfaer Theater in 2005. There may be plans to take the show on the road, as it drew positive reviews as an accurate portrayal of the eccentric coach.

Coaching accomplishments

Belmont Abbey record: 109-64
Coached Belmont Abbey to five postseason appearances
Marquette record: 295-80
Coached team to 11 consecutive postseason bids at Marquette
NIT championship (1970)
Coached team to a 28-1 season (1971)
Associated Press, United Press International and United States Basketball Writers Association Coach of the Year (1971)
NABC Coach of the Year (1974)
NCAA championship (1977)
Among a select few coaches who have won both the NIT and NCAA championships
Marquette captured its first ever NCAA championship with a 67-59 victory over North Carolina in McGuire's last game as coach
More than 92 percent of his student-athletes completed requirements to earn their degrees from Marquette
Twenty-six of his players were drafted into the NBA
Marquette University Athletic Director (1973-77)
Conducted clinics at two Air Force bases in Europe (1971)

Monday, October 29, 2007

Harumi Inoue
Harumi Inoue (井上 晴美 Inoue Harumi, born September 23, 1974 in Kumamoto, Japan) is an actress, model and accomplished swimmer. As of 2004, she is 5 ft 4 in and weighs 103 lb. Her bloodtype is B.
She has a younger sister, Mami Inoue, who is also pursuing a similar career. Also, a younger brother, Eiki Kitamura whom she performed alongside in Rock Musical Bleach.
Because of her spontanaeity, poise and effortless abilities in front of a camera, there are also various DVDs, books and calendars dedicated to her image to be found in her native Japan. She's also released pop singles.
She was also the character "Hiromi Ueda" in the 1995 TV series Kimi To Deatte Kara.
Asakusa Kid is based on a semi-autobiographical book of the same name by the avant-garde comedian and general oddball Takeshi Kitano.
Inoue graduated from Shinjuku Yamabuki High School in Tokyo.


Rock Musical BLEACH The Dark of The Bleeding Moon - Rangiku Matsumoto

Sunday, October 28, 2007

For the actor, see John Rubinstein.
Jonathan J Rubinstein (born 1956) is an American computer scientist and electrical engineer who was instrumental in the creation of the iPod, the portable music and video device first sold by Apple Computer Inc. in 2001. He was also responsible for the development of Apple's iMac line. He has been elected to serve as a member of the National Academy of Engineering and is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
In October 2005, Rubinstein announced plans to retire from his position as senior vice president of the Apple's iPod division. He left the company on April 14, 2006 and is now set to become executive chairman of the board at Palm, Inc. after private-equity firm Elevation Partners completes a significant investment in the handheld manufacturer, announced June 11th, 2007.

Early years and education
After graduate school, Rubinstein took a job with Hewlett-Packard in Colorado. He spent about two years in the company's manufacturing engineering division, developing quality-control techniques and refining manufacturing processes. Later, Rubinstein worked on HP workstations.
Rubinstein left HP in 1986 to join a startup, Ardent Computer Corp., in Silicon Valley. While at Ardent, later renamed Stardent, he played an integral role in launching a pair of machines, the Titan Graphics Supercomputer and the Stardent 3000 Graphics Supercomputer.

Early career
In 1990, iconic Apple co-founder Steve Jobs approached Rubinstein to run hardware engineering at his latest venture, NeXT Inc. Rubinstein headed work on NeXT's PowerPC workstation – a graphics powerhouse that was never released because the company abandoned the unforgiving margins of the hardware business in favor of a software-only approach.
After helping to dismantle NeXT's manufacturing operations, Rubinstein went on to start another company, Power House Systems Inc. That company, later renamed Firepower Systems Inc., was backed by Canon Inc. and used technology developed at NeXT. It developed and built high-end systems using the PowerPC chip. Motorola bought the business in 1996.

Jon Rubinstein Developing the iPod
Member, National Academy of Engineering
Senior Member, IEEE
Director, Immersion Corp.
Member, Cornell Alumni Council
Member, Cornell Silicon Valley Advisors
Fellow, World Technology Network
Member, Consumer Electronics Association Board of Industry Leaders

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Rise of the Communists
The early years of Communist rule in Romania were marked by repeated changes of course and by numerous arrests and imprisonments, as factions contended for dominance. The country's resources were also drained by the Soviet's SovRom agreements, which facilitated shipping of Romanian goods to the Soviet Union at nominal prices. In all ministries, there were Soviet "advisers", who reported directly to Moscow and held the real decision-making powers. All walks of life were infiltrated by agents and informers of the secret police.
In 1948 the earlier agrarian reform was reversed, replaced by a move toward collective farm. This resulted in forced "collectivization", since wealthier peasants generally did not want to give up their land voluntarily, and had to be "convinced" by beatings, intimidation, arrests and deportations.
On June 11, 1948, all banks and large businesses were nationalized.
In the communist leadership, there appear to have been three important factions, all of them Stalinist, differentiated more by their respective personal histories than by any deep political or philosophical differences:
Ultimately, with Stalin's backing, and probably due in part to the anti-Semitic policies of late Stalinism (Pauker was Jewish), Gheorghiu-Dej and the "Prison Communists" won out. Pauker was purged from the party (along with 192,000 other party members); Pătrăşcanu was executed after a show trial.

The "Muscovites," notably Ana Pauker and Vasile Luca, had spent the war in Moscow.
The "Prison Communists," notably Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, had been imprisoned during the war.
The somewhat less firmly Stalinist "Secretariat Communists," notably Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu had made it through the Antonescu years by hiding within Romania and had participated in the broad governments immediately after King Michael's 1944 coup. Early years of the communist state
Gheorghiu-Dej, a firm Stalinist, was not pleased with the reforms in Nikita Khrushchev's Soviet Union after Stalin's death in 1953. He also blanched at Comecon's goal of turning Romania into the "breadbasket" of the East Bloc, pursuing a program of the development of heavy industry. He also closed Romania's largest labor camps, abandoned the Danube–Black Sea Canal project, halted rationing, and hiked workers' wages.
This, combined with continuing resentment that historically Romanian lands remained part of the Soviet Union, in the form of the Moldavian SSR, inevitably led Romania under Gheorghiu-Dej on a relatively independent and nationalist route.
Gheorghiu-Dej identified with Stalinism, and the more liberal Soviet regime threatened to undermine his authority. In an effort to reinforce his position, Gheorghiu-Dej pledged cooperation with any state, regardless of political-economic system, as long as it recognized international equality and did not interfere in other nations' domestic affairs. This policy led to a tightening of Romania's bonds with China, which also advocated national self-determination.
In 1954 Gheorghiu-Dej resigned as the party's general secretary but retained the premiership; a four-member collective secretariat, including Nicolae Ceauşescu, controlled the party for a year before Gheorghiu-Dej again took up the reins. Despite its new policy of international cooperation, Romania joined the Warsaw Treaty Organization (Warsaw Pact) in 1955, which entailed subordinating and integrating a portion of its military into the Soviet military machine. Romania later refused to allow Warsaw Pact maneuvers on its soil and limited its participation in military maneuvers elsewhere within the alliance.
In 1956 the Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced Stalin in a secret speech before the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU. Gheorghiu-Dej and the leadership of the Romanian Workers' Party (Partidul Muncitoresc Român, PMR) were fully braced to weather de-Stalinization. Gheorghiu-Dej made Pauker, Luca and Georgescu scapegoats for the Romanian communists' past excesses and claimed that the Romanian party had purged its Stalinist elements even before Stalin had died.
In October 1956, Poland's communist leaders refused to succumb to Soviet military threats to intervene in domestic political affairs and install a more obedient politburo. A few weeks later, the communist party in Hungary virtually disintegrated during a popular revolution. Poland's defiance and Hungary's popular uprising inspired Romanian students and workers to demonstrate in university and industrial towns calling for liberty, better living conditions, and an end to Soviet domination. Fearing the Hungarian uprising might incite his nation's own Hungarian population to revolt, Gheorghiu-Dej advocated swift Soviet intervention, and the Soviet Union reinforced its military presence in Romania, particularly along the Hungarian border. Although Romania's unrest proved fragmentary and controllable, Hungary's was not, so in November Moscow mounted a bloody invasion of Hungary.
After the Revolution of 1956, Gheorghiu-Dej worked closely with Hungary's new leader, János Kádár. Although Romania initially took in Imre Nagy, the exiled former Hungarian premier, it returned him to Budapest for trial and execution. In turn, Kádár renounced Hungary's claims to Transylvania and denounced Hungarians there who had supported the revolution as chauvinists, nationalists, and irredentists.
In Transylvania, for their part, the Romanian authorities merged Hungarian and Romanian universities at Cluj and consolidated middle schools.
Romania's government also took measures to allay domestic discontent by reducing investments in heavy industry, boosting output of consumer goods, decentralizing economic management, hiking wages and incentives, and instituting elements of worker management. The authorities eliminated compulsory deliveries for private farmers but reaccelerated the collectivization program in the mid-1950s, albeit less brutally than earlier. The government declared collectivization complete in 1962, when collective and state farms controlled 77% of the arable land.
Despite Gheorghiu-Dej's claim that he had purged the Romanian party of Stalinists, he remained susceptible to attack for his obvious complicity in the party's activities from 1944 to 1953. At a plenary PMR meeting in March 1956, Miron Constantinescu and Iosif Chişinevschi, both Politburo members and deputy premiers, criticized Gheorghiu-Dej. Constantinescu, who advocated a Khrushchev-style liberalization, posed a particular threat to Gheorghiu-Dej because he enjoyed good connections with the Moscow leadership. The PMR purged Constantinescu and Chişinevschi in 1957, denouncing both as Stalinists and charging them with complicity with Pauker. Afterwards, Gheorghiu-Dej faced no serious challenge to his leadership. Ceauşescu replaced Constantinescu as head of PMR cadres.
Gheorghiu-Dej never reached a truly mutually acceptable accommodation with Hungary over Transylvania. (The same could be said of all leaders of the two nations as long as they have had identities as nations.) Gheorghiu-Dej took a two-pronged approach to the problem, arresting the leaders of the Hungarian People's Alliance, but establishing an autonomous Hungarian region in the Székely land. This erected an ultimately meaningless façade of concern for minority rights.
Most Romanian Jews initially favored Communism, in reaction to the anti-Semitism of the Fascists. However, by the 1950s, most were disappointed with the increasing discrimination of the Party and the limitations for emigration to Israel.

The Gheorghiu-Dej era

Main articles: Romanian anti-communist resistance movement, Bărăgan deportations, and Piteşti prison Persecution, the labor camp system and anti-communist resistance
Gheorghiu-Dej died in 1965 in unclear circumstances (his death apparently occurred when he was in Moscow for medical treatment) and, after the inevitable power struggle, was succeeded by the previously obscure Nicolae Ceauşescu. Where Gheorghiu-Dej had hewed to a Stalinist line while the Soviet Union was in a reformist period, Ceauşescu initially appeared to be a reformist, precisely as the Soviet Union was headed into its neo-Stalinist era under Leonid Brezhnev.
In 1965 the name of the country was changed to Republica Socialistă România (The Socialist Republic of Romania) — RSR — and PMR was renamed once again to Partidul Communist Român — The Romanian Communist Party (PCR).
In his early years in power, Ceauşescu was genuinely popular, both at home and abroad. Agricultural goods were abundant, consumer goods began to reappear, there was a cultural thaw, and, most importantly abroad, he spoke out against the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. While his reputation at home soon paled, he continued to have uncommonly good relations with western governments and with institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank because of his independent political line. Romania under Ceauşescu maintained diplomatic relations with, among others, West Germany, Israel, China, and Albania, all for various reasons on the outs with Moscow.
The period of freedom and apparent prosperity was to be short-lived. Even at the start, reproductive freedom was severely restricted. Wishing to increase the birth rate, in 1966, Ceauşescu promulgated a law restricting abortion and contraception: only women over the age of 40 or who already had at least four children were eligible for either; in 1972 this became women over the age of 45 or who already had at least five children.
Other abuses of human rights were typical of a Stalinist regime: a massive force of secret police (the "Securitate"), censorship, relocations, but not on the same scale as in the 1950s.
During the Ceauşescu era, there was a secret ongoing "trade" between Romania on one side and Israel and West Germany on the other side, under which Israel and West Germany paid money to Romania to allow Romanian citizens with certified Jewish or Saxon ancestry to emigrate to Israel and West Germany, respectively.
Ceauşescu's Romania continued to pursue Gheorghiu-Dej's policy of industrialization, but still produced few goods of a quality suitable for the world market. Also, after a visit to North Korea, Ceauşescu developed a megalomaniacal vision of completely remaking the country; this became known as systematization. A large portion of the capital, Bucharest, was torn down to make way for the Casa Poporului (now House of Parliament) complex and Centrul Civic (Civic Center), but the December 1989 Revolution left much of the huge complex unfinished, such as a new National Library and the National Museum of History. During the huge demolitions in the 1980s, this area was popularly called "Ceauşima" - a bitter satirical allusion of Ceauşescu and Hiroshima TV broadcasts were limited to two hours daily, mostly propaganda, with most people choosing to watch Bulgarian, Serbian, Hungarian or Russian TV, wherever the signal was sufficiently strong, using illegal antennas or mini satellite dishes. There were almost no computers 8-bit clones of Western home computers being directly shipped to serve as workstations in factories and such.
Another legacy of this era was pollution, with Ceauşescu's government scoring badly on this count even by the standards of the Eastern European communist states. Examples include Copşa Mică with its infamous Carbon Powder factory (in the 1980s, the whole city could be seen from satellite as covered by a thick black cloud), Hunedoara, or the plan, launched in 1989, to convert the unique Danube Delta — a UNESCO World Heritage site — to plain agricultural fields.

The Ceauşescu regime

Main article: Romanian Revolution of 1989Communist Romania Controversy over the events of December 1989
< World War II | History of Romania | 1989 Revolution >

List of Romanian communists
Scînteia - The Romanian Communist Party's Newspaper
The Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania
Administrative divisions of the Peoples' Republic of Romania

Friday, October 26, 2007

ISTAT may refer to:
International Society of Transport Aircraft Trading, an aircraft standards organization.
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Italian National Statistics Institute.
Comprehensive Website Statistics Engine by Softual Developments

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Battle of Lacolle Mills (1814)
The Second Battle of Lacolle Mills was fought on March 30, 1814 during the War of 1812. American Major-General James Wilkinson planned another invasion of Canada to make up for his humiliating defeat by the British at the Battle of Crysler's Farm.

Lacolle Mills Blockhouse

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

PerlitePerlite Properties and uses

70-75% silicon dioxide: SiO2
12-15% aluminium oxide: Al2O3
3-4% sodium oxide: Na2O
3-5% potassium oxide: K2O
0.5-2% iron oxide: Fe2O3
0.2-0.7% magnesium oxide: MgO
0.5-1.5% calcium oxide: CaO
3-5% loss on ignition (chemical / combined water) Production trends

Vermiculite (Many expanders of perlite are also exfoliating vermiculite and belong to both trade associations)
Diatomite (used for filter-aids)
Industrial minerals
Mortar (firestop)

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only andIan Bennett (footballer) correct as of 12:00, 25 September 2006. * Appearances (Goals)
Ian Michael Bennett (born October 10, 1971 in Worksop, England) is an English footballer and goalkeeper who currently plays for Sheffield United
Starting with Queens Park Rangers in 1988, Bennett moved to Newcastle United in March of the same season. However, having failed to make a single appearance for either team he signed for Peterborough United. Between March 22, 1991 and December 17, 1993, he played 72 league games for Peterborough.
Bennett was signed by Barry Fry, then boss of Birmingham City, for £325,000 in 1993. He became the first-choice keeper at Birmingham for the next five years, making 287 league appearances, before, eventually losing his number one position to Kevin Poole in November 1998 due to injury.
However, Poole also succumbed to injury, enabling Bennett to return to the team until the 1999-00 season, when he was again plagued with injury this time being consistently replaced by Norwegian Thomas Myhre for the last two months of the campaign. A rare highlight of that season occurred during the League Cup when he saved a penalty for Birmingham taken by Alan Shearer, which earned him plaudits amongst fans and critics alike.
Although, the signings of Nico Vaesen (Summer 2000) and Maik Taylor (Summer 2003) meant that he was not able to play in goal for as many games as he wanted, he still made his 350th league appearance against Aston Villa in 2003/04.
In late 2004 was loaned out to Sheffield United where he impressed manager (Neil Warnock) in the five games he played as cover for the injured Paddy Kenny. After this he was loaned to Coventry City. During his loan spell, he became the first and only goalkeeper to be sent off in a competitive league match at Highfield Road, sent off in the 0-0 draw at home with Stoke City F.C.
On June 17, 2005, after 12 years at Birmingham, Bennett transferred to Leeds United who already had Scottish international goalkeeper Neil Sullivan as first-choice goalkeeper. Despite playing the pre-season friendlies, he was limited to a four league appearances during the 2004-05 season, obtained deputising for the injured Sullivan.
In July 2006, Bennett transferred for an undisclosed fee to newly promoted Sheffield United of the Premiership, signing on a two-year deal to provide competition to the Blades first-choice goalkeeper, Paddy Kenny. He played the first game of his second spell at the club at Bramall Lane against Reading on September 16, 2006.

Monday, October 22, 2007

Differential may refer to:

Natural sciences and engineering

Semantic and structural differentials in psychology
A quality spread differential in finance
Compensating differential in labor economics

Sunday, October 21, 2007


Main article: Red River RebellionPost-Confederation Canada (1867-1914) The Red River Rebellion
In 1866, the colonies of British Columbia (formerly New Caledonia) and Vancouver's Island were united. British Columbia had been important for British control of the Pacific Ocean, and was a centre of the fur trade between Britain, the United States, Russia, Spain, and China. It did not participate in the original Confederation conferences, but agreed to join Canada in 1871 when Macdonald promised to build a transcontinental railroad across the continent through the Northwest Territories (formerly Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory), which at this time still extended to the U.S. border. The Canadian Pacific Railway and the Dominion Land Survey were begun soon after.
In 1873, Prince Edward Island, the Maritime colony that had opted not to join Confederation in 1867, was admitted into the country. That same year, Macdonald created the North West Mounted Police to help police the Northwest Territories, and assert Canadian independence over possible American encroachments into the sparsely populated land. The "Mounties" became legendary for keeping law and order in the west.
However, also in 1873, Macdonald and the Conservative government faced a major political crisis, when it was revealed that the Canadian Pacific Railway Company had helped fund Macdonald's election campaign in 1872. A new election was called in 1874, and Alexander Mackenzie became Prime Minister. Under Mackenzie, the Canadian Pacific Railway continued to expand to the west, but the public's suspicion of Macdonald was erased by 1878, when the Macdonald and the Conservatives were re-elected.


Main article: National PolicyPost-Confederation Canada (1867-1914) The North-West Rebellion

Main article: Manitoba Schools Question The Manitoba Schools Question
While the National Policy, CPR and Dominion Lands Act had been in place for several decades, the population of Canada's prairie regions only got underway around 1896. Why it began then is a matter of debate among historians. John Dales argued that it was a combination of rising wheat prices, cheaper ocean transport costs, technological change, new varieties of wheat, and the scarcity of land in the United States. Norry does not view any of these developments as being important, and instead argues that new methods of dry farming lead to the breakthrough. Recently ,Ward had argued that technological change was the most important factor, with a number of different inventions becoming cheap and reliable enough to be widely used around this period. The period of western settlement was one of the most prosperous in Canadian history. From 1896 to 1911, Canada had the world's fastest growing economy. Immigration from Eastern Europe and the eastern parts of the former Austro-Hungarian empire brought many old world farmers to the settle the west and despite their lack of knowledge in the English language many adapted quickly to the farming environment which was somewhat similar to their original homelands.

Population of the West

Main article: Klondike Gold Rush Klondike Gold Rush
Laurier hoped to unite French and English Canada in a unique sense of Canadian nationalism, rather than remain unquestionably loyal to Britain. Along with some Americans, he also hoped for a shift of focus towards North America, a policy often known as "continentalism." However, in 1899, the British immediately assumed Canada would send military support to the Boer War in South Africa, and there was indeed enormous support for military action from English Canada. French Canada was strongly opposed to military support for Britain's imperialist wars. The opposition was led by Henri Bourassa, who, like Laurier, preferred a united, independent Canada. Bourassa denounced Laurier when Laurier eventually decided to allow a volunteer force to fight in the war, even though the other option would have been calling up an official army.
As Prime Minister, Laurier successfully brought Saskatchewan and Alberta into Confederation in 1905, carving those provinces out of the Northwest Territories. He felt Canada was on the verge of becoming a world power, and declared that the 20th century would "belong to Canada". However, he faced even more criticism when he introduced the Naval Service Bill in 1910. It was meant to make Canada less dependent on Britain and British imperialism, but Bourassa believed the British would now call on the Canadian navy whenever it was needed, just as they did with the Canadian army. Pro-British imperialists were also opposed to the attempt to remove Canada from the Empire. The Naval Service Bill led to Laurier's downfall in the election of 1911. Conservatives led by Robert Laird Borden attacked reciprocity with the United States, warning that strong economic links would weaken the Empire and allow the neighbour to increasingly take over the economy.

Turn of the century immigration dispute

Saturday, October 20, 2007

Public holidays in Turkey
The official holidays in Turkey are established by the Act 2429 of March 19, 1981 that replaced the Act 2739 of May 27, 1935. These holidays can be grouped in national and Islamic religious holidays.

Friday, October 19, 2007

Old Parliament House, Athens
Old Parliament House, Athens The Old Parliament building (Greek: Παλαιά Βουλή, Palaia Voulē) at Stadiou Street in Athens, housed the Greek Parliament between 1875 and 1932. It now houses the country's National Historical Museum (Εθνικό Ιστορικό Μουσείο, Ethniko Istoriko Mouseio).

The National Historical Museum

List of museums in Greece

Thursday, October 18, 2007

The Life of King Henry the Fifth Sources
Henry V was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on August 14, 1600 by the bookseller Thomas Pavier; the first quarto was published before the end of the year—though by Thomas Millington and John Busby rather than Pavier. (The printing was done by Thomas Creede.) Q1 of Henry V is a "bad quarto," a shortened version of the play that might be a pirated copy or reported text. A second quarto, a reprint of Q1, appeared in 1602; another reprint was issued as Q3 in 1619, with a false date of 1608—part of William Jaggard's False Folio. The superior text first saw print in the First Folio in 1623.

Date and text
A tradition, impossible to verify, holds that Henry V was the first play performed at the new Globe Theatre in the spring of 1599; the Globe would have been the "wooden O" mentioned in the Prologue. In 1600 the first printed text states that the play had been played "sundry times." The earliest performance known for certain, however, occurred on January 7, 1605, at Court.
Samuel Pepys saw a Henry V in 1664—but it was written by Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, not by Shakespeare. Shakespeare's play returned to the stage in 1723, in an adaptation by Aaron Hill.
There is no evidence that Henry V was popular in Shakespeare's own time. However, it is now frequently staged and many of its speeches have passed into popular culture.
The longest running production of the play in Broadway history was the staging starring Richard Mansfield in 1900 which ran for 54 performances. Other notable stage performances of Henry V include Charles Kean (1859), Charles Calvert (1872), Walter Hampden (1928), and Laurence Olivier at the Old Vic Theatre (1937).

Performance history

King Henry the Fifth.
Duke of Gloucester, & Duke of Bedford, Brothers to the King.
Duke of Exeter, Uncle to the King.
Duke of York, Cousin to the King.
Earls of Salisbury, Westmoreland, and Warwick.
Archbishop of Canterbury
Bishop of Ely
Earl of Cambridge, Lord Scroop, and Sir Thomas Grey, Traitors.
Sir Thomas Erpingham, Gower, Fluellen, Macmorris, Jamy, Officers in King Henry's Army.
Bates, Court, Williams, Soldiers in the Same.
Pistol, Nym, Bardolph.
A Herald.
The King of France, historically Charles VI but never named as such in the play.
Lewis, the Dauphin.
Dukes of Burgundy, Orleans, and Bourbon.
Constable of France
Rambures and Grandpré, French Lords.
Montjoy, a French Herald.
Governor of Harfleur.
Ambassadors to the King of England.
Monsieur le Fer, a French soldier
Isabel, Queen of France
Katharine, Daughter to Charles and Isabel
Alice, a Lady attending on the Princess Katharine
Hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern, formerly Mistress Quickly, and now married to Pistol. Dramatis personae
Elizabethan stages did not use scenery. Acknowledging the difficulty of conveying great battles and shifts of location on a bare stage, Shakespeare uses as narrator a Chorus (a reference to the Greek chorus but played by a single actor), who explains the story to the audience and encourages them to use their imaginations. The chorus calls for a "Muse of fire" so that the actor playing King Henry can "Assume the port of Mars." He asks, "Can this cockpit [i.e. the theatre] hold / The vasty fields of France?" and encourages the audience to use their imaginations to overcome the stage's limitations: "Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts."
The early scenes deal with the embarkation of Henry's fleet for France, and include a real-life incident in which the Earl of Cambridge and two others plotted to assassinate Henry at Southampton. Henry's clever uncovering of the plot and ruthless treatment of the plotters is one indication that he has changed from the earlier plays in which he appeared.
The Chorus reappears. He describes the country's dedication to the war effort - "They sell the pasture now to buy the horse" - and tells the audience "We'll not offend one stomach with our play."
As with all of Shakespeare's serious plays, there are also a number of minor comic characters whose activities contrast with and sometimes comment on the main plot. In this case, they are mostly common soldiers in Henry's army, and include Pistol, Nym, and Bardolph from the Henry IV plays. The army also includes representatives of each of the constituent parts of the British Isles: a Scot, an Irishman, an Englishman and Fluellen (a comically-stereotyped Welsh soldier, whose name is almost certainly an attempt at a phonetic rendition of "Llywelyn"). The play also deals briefly with the death of Falstaff, Henry's one time mentor and another character from the Henry IV plays.
The Chorus appears again, seeking support for the English navy: "Grapple your minds to sternage of this navy" he says, notes that "the ambassador from the French comes back;/ Tells Harry that the king doth offer him / Katharine his daughter."
At the siege of Harfleur, Henry utters one of Shakespeare's best-known speeches, beginning "Once more unto the breach, dear friends...".
Before the Battle of Agincourt, victory looks uncertain, and the young king's heroic character is shown by his decision to wander around the English camp at night, in disguise, so as to comfort his soldiers and find out what they really think of him. Before the battle begins, Henry rallies his troops with the famous speech:
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers;
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me
Shall be my brother; be he ne'er so vile,
This day shall gentle his condition:
And gentlemen in England now a-bed
Shall think themselves accursed they were not here,
And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks
That fought with us upon Saint Crispin's day.
Following the victory at Agincourt, Henry attempts to woo the French princess, Catherine of Valois. The action ends with the French king adopting Henry as his heir to the French throne and the prayer of the French queen "that English may as French, French Englishmen, receive each other, God speak this Amen."
But before the curtain descends, the Chorus re-appears one more time and ruefully notes that Henry's own heir's "state, so many had the managing, that they both lost France, and made his England bleed" - a reminder of the tumultuous reign of Henry VI of England, which Shakespeare had previously brought to the stage.

Views on warfare

Wednesday, October 17, 2007

Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit near the village of Silverstone in the United Kingdom. It is best known as the home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted in 1948 and which has been held on the circuit every year since 1987. The circuit is also home to the BRDC International Trophy, formerly one of the premier non-Championship F1 races in the calendar, today awarded to the winner of a race for historic F1 cars at the annual Silverstone Classic meeting. Due to the high speed nature of the circuit, the track offers many opportunities for slipstreaming, however, overtaking can be difficult for less able drivers.

Silverstone Circuit Circuit Development
Bernie Ecclestone has stated that he will only negotiate the future of Formula One at Silverstone post-2009 if the BRDC gives up its role as promoter of the event. In an Autosport interview he said "I want to deal with a promoter rather than the BRDC. It is too difficult with the BRDC because you get no guarantees with them. We've said that unless they can get the circuit to the level expected from so-called Third-World countries, we are not prepared to do a deal. They know what we want them to build."

Silverstone is the current home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted in 1948. The 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly-created Formula One World Championship. The race rotated between Silverstone, Aintree and Brands Hatch from 1955 to 1986, but relocated permanently to Silverstone in 1987.

List of Grands Prix at Silverstone


In 1965, the chase scene in the thirty-eighth minute of the James Bond film Thunderball was filmed at Silverstone.

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

San Juanico Strait
San Juanico Strait is a narrow strait in the Philippines. It separates the islands of Samar and Leyte. At its narrowest point, the strait is only 2 km wide. It is crossed by San Juanico Bridge.

Monday, October 15, 2007

Nikolai Podgorny
Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny (Russian: Никола́й Ви́кторович Подго́рный, Ukrainian: Микола Вікторович Підгорний) (February 18 [O.S. February 5] 1903January 12, 1983) was the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 1965 to 1977.
An engineer, trained at the Technological Institute of the Food Industry in Kiev, he became deputy commissar of the Ukrainian food industry before entering the official ranks of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1950. He was elected a member of the central committee of the party in 1956 and of the presidium (later known as the politburo) in 1960.
In 1965 he became chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet, or chief of state, succeeding Anastas Mikoyan. Podgorny was relieved of his chairmanship and removed from the politburo during a 1977 power struggle with Leonid Brezhnev.
Flag of the West Ukrainian National Republic West Ukrainian National Republic (1918–1919): Kost LevytskyiYevhen Petrushevych
Flag of the Ukrainian People's Republic Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1920): Mykhailo HrushevskyiVolodymyr VynnychenkoSymon Petliura (Holovnyi Otaman)
Hetmanate (1918): Pavlo Skoropadskyi
UPR Government in-exile (1920–1992): Andriy LivytskyiStepan VytvytskyiMykola LivytskyiMykola Plaviuk
Ukrainian Independent Government (1941): Yaroslav Stetsko
Flag of the Ukrainian SSR Ukrainian SSR (1917–1991), First Secretaries: Georgy PyatakovStanislav KosiorDmitry ManuilskyEmmanuil KviringLazar KaganovichStanislav KosiorNikita KhrushchevLazar KaganovichNikita KhrushchevLeonid MelnikovAlexei KirichenkoNikolai PodgornyPetro ShelestVolodymyr ShcherbytskyVolodymyr IvashkoStanislav Gurenko
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine since 1991, Presidents: Leonid KravchukLeonid KuchmaViktor Yushchenko

Sunday, October 14, 2007

The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center. It is sometimes referred to as the Peacock Network due to its stylized peacock logo. The network is now a part of the media company NBC Universal, a unit of General Electric (GE) and Vivendi, and supplies programming to more than 200 affiliated U.S. stations.
Formed in 1926 by RCA, control of NBC passed to GE in 1986 following GE's $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Since this acquisition, the chief executive of NBC (now NBC Universal) was Bob Wright, until he retired, giving his job to Jeff Zucker.

The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) radio network went on the air with twenty-four affiliated stations on November 15, 1926. It was owned by Radio Corporation of America (RCA), itself set up in 1919 to control Guglielmo Marconi's American patents; RCA in turn was owned by General Electric Company (GE), the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, the United Fruit Company and American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T).

During a period of early consolidation in the broadcasting business, RCA had acquired New York radio station WEAF from AT&T. RCA shareholder Westinghouse had a competing facility in Newark, pioneer station WJZ, which also served as the originating station for a loosely-structured network. This station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, and moved to New York.
WEAF had been a laboratory for AT&T's Western Electric, which manufactured transmitters and antennas. AT&T's long-distance and local Bell operating divisions were developing technologies for transmitting voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, via both wireless and wired methods. So AT&T's creation of station WEAF in 1922 offered a research-and-development center for these activities. WEAF put together a regular schedule of programs of all types, and created some of the first broadcasts to incorporate commercial endorsements or sponsorships. It was an immediate success, and created links with other stations to offer coverage of sports or political events. WEAF's first efforts in what would become known first as "chain broadcasting" and later as "networking" tied together Outlet Company's WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island with AT&T's WCAP in Washington, D.C. (named for the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company division of AT&T). RCA also saw an advantage in sharing programming, and after getting a license for station WRC in Washington, D.C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines (since AT&T refused outside companies access to their high-quality phone lines). The effort was poor at best, with the uninsulated telegraph lines incapable of good audio transmission quality and very susceptible to both atmospheric and man-made electrical interference.
In 1925 the management of AT&T decided that WEAF and its network was not compatible with AT&T's goal of providing a phone service, and offered to sell the station to RCA, whose business was set manufacturing. When RCA bought WEAF, it gained rights to rent AT&T's phone lines for network transmission.

Earliest Stations: WEAF & WJZ
For $1 million, RCA acquired radio station WEAF and a Washington sister-station, WCAP, which it shut down. This transaction accompanied the announcement, in the late summer of 1926, of a new wholly owned division of RCA called The National Broadcasting Company.

Red & Blue Networks

Main article: NBC chimes The Chimes
From its creation in 1934, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) had studied the monopolistic effects of network broadcasting on the industry, and found that NBC's two networks and their owned-and-operated stations dominated audiences, affiliates and advertising dollars in American radio. In 1939 the FCC ordered RCA to divest itself of one of the two networks; RCA fought the divestiture order, but divided NBC into two companies in 1940 in case an appeal was lost. The Blue network became the "NBC Blue Network, Inc." (now as ABC) and the NBC Red became "NBC Red Network, Inc." In January, 1942, the two networks had their operations formally divorced, and the Blue Network was referred to on the air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network," with its official corporate name being Blue Network Company, Inc. NBC Red, on the air, became known as simply NBC.
With the loss of the final appeal before the United States Supreme Court in May, 1943, RCA sold Blue Network Company, Inc. for $8 million to Lifesavers magnate Edward J. Noble, completing the sale in October, 1943. For his money, Noble got the network name, leases on land-lines and the New York studios, two-and-a half stations (WJZ in Newark/New York, KGO in San Francisco and WENR in Chicago which shared a frequency with "Prairie Farmer" station WLS) and about 60 affiliates. Noble wanted a more memorable name for the network; in 1944 he acquired rights to the name "American Broadcasting Company" from George Storer and the Blue Network became ABC, with the official name change announced on June 15, 1945, after the sale was completed.
(For a detailed description of the events leading up to the 1943 sale of the NBC Blue Network, and its 1943-5 history, see Blue Network.)

New Beginnings: The Blue Network Becomes ABC
In the golden days of network broadcasting, 1930 to 1950, NBC was the pinnacle of American radio. Home to many of the most popular stars and programs, NBC stations were often the most powerful, or occupied clear-channel frequencies so that they were heard nation-wide. Such well-known stars as Al Jolson, Bob Hope, Jack Benny, Edgar Bergen, Johnny Carson and Fred Allen called NBC home, as did Arturo Toscanini's NBC Symphony. NBC also broadcast radio's earliest hit, Amos 'n' Andy, in its original fifteen-minute serial format that set the standard for just about all serialised programming in the first radio era, whether for comedies or soap operas.
As television became more popular in the 1950s, many NBC radio stars gravitated there. Toscanini made his ten television appearances on NBC between 1948 and 1952. In 1950, the network sanctioned The Big Show, a 90-minute radio variety show that harked back to radio's earliest musical variety style but with sophisticated comedy and dramatic presentations and featuring stage legend Tallulah Bankhead as its host. It aimed to keep classic radio alive as television matured and to challenge CBS's Sunday night lineup —much of which had jumped there from NBC in the late 1940s, including (and especially) Jack Benny. But The Big Show's initial success didn't last despite critics' praises; the show endured only two years, with NBC said to lose a million dollars on the project.
NBC Radio's last major programming push, in 1955, was Monitor, a continuous, all-weekend mixture of music, news, interviews and features with a variety of hosts including such well-known television personalities as Dave Garroway, Hugh Downs, Ed McMahon, Joe Garagiola and Gene Rayburn. The potpourri also tried to keep vintage radio alive in featuring segments from Jim and Marian Jordan (in character as Fibber McGee and Molly), Ethel & Albert, and iconoclastic satirist Henry Morgan, among others. Monitor was a success for a number of years, but after the mid-1960s, local stations, especially in larger markets, became increasingly reluctant to break from their established formats to run non-conforming network programming. After Monitor went off the air in early 1975, there was little left of NBC Radio beyond hourly newscasts and news-related features.
Later in 1975, NBC launched the NBC News and Information Service, which provided up to 55 minutes of news per hour around the clock to local stations that wanted to adopt an all-news format. The service attracted several dozen subscribers, but not enough to allow NBC to project that it would ever become profitable, and it was discontinued after two years. Near the end of the 1970s, NBC started "The Source," a modestly successful secondary network that provided news and short features to FM rock stations.
After their 1986 acquisition of NBC, GE decided that the radio business did not fit their strategic objectives. NBC Radio's network operations were sold to Westwood One, and the NBC-owned stations were sold to various buyers. In 1989, the "NBC Radio Network" as an independent programming service ceased to exist, becoming a brand-name for content produced by Westwood One - and ultimately by CBS Radio. (The same case occurred with the Mutual Broadcasting System, which Westwood One acquired two years earlier and essentially merged with NBC Radio.)
By the late 1990s "NBC"-branded newscasts were being produced only on weekday mornings; around 2003 even these were discontinued, and the remaining NBC Radio Network affiliates began to receive CNN Radio-branded newscasts at all hours. At about the same time Westwood One began to distribute a new service called NBC News Radio, consisting of brief news updates read by NBC News and MSNBC anchors and reporters.

Defining Radio's Golden Age
For many years NBC was closely identified with David Sarnoff, who used it as a vehicle to sell consumer electronics. It was Sarnoff who ruthlessly stole innovative ideas from competitors, using RCA's muscle to prevail in the courts. RCA and Sarnoff had dictated the broadcasting standards put in place by the FCC in 1938, and stole the spotlight by introducing all-electronic television to the public at the 1939-40 New York World's Fair, simultaneously initiating a regular schedule of programs on the NBC-RCA television station in New York City. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt appeared at the fair, before the NBC cameras, becoming the first U.S. president to appear on television on April 30, 1939. An actual, off-the-monitor photograph of the FDR telecast can be viewed at The broadcast was transmitted by NBC's New York television station W2XBS Channel 1 (now WNBC-TV channel 4) and was seen by about 1,000 viewers within the station's roughly 40-mile coverage area from their Empire State Building transmitter location. The next day, May 1, four models of RCA television sets went on sale to the general public in various New York City department stores, promoted in a series of splashy newspaper ads. It is to be noted that DuMont (and others) actually offered the first home sets in 1938 in anticipation of NBC's announced April 1939 start-up. Later in 1939, NBC took its cameras to professional football and baseball games in the New York City area, establishing many "firsts" in the history of television. Actual NBC "network" broadcasts (more than one station) began about this time with occasional special events--such as the King and Queen of England's visit to the New York World's Fair--being seen in Philadelphia (over the station which would become WPTZ, now KYW) and in Schenectady (over the station which would become WRGB), two pioneer stations in their own right. The most ambitious NBC television "network" program of this pre-war era was the telecasting of the Republican National Convention in 1940 from Philadelphia, which was fed live to New York and Schenectady (photographs and specifics of the 1940 convention telecast at However, despite major promotion by RCA, television set sales in New York in the 1939-1940 period were disappointing, primarily due to the high cost of the sets, and the lack of compelling regular programming. Most sets were sold to bars, hotels and other public places, where the general public viewed special sporting and news events.
NBC's experimental New York City station was licensed for commercial telecasts beginning on July 1, 1941, adopting the call letters WNBT (it is now WNBC-TV). The first official commercial on that day was for Bulova Watches, seen just before the start of a Brooklyn Dodgers telecast. Limited programming continued until the U.S. entered World War II. Telecasts were curtailed in the early years of the war, then expanded as NBC began to prepare for full service upon the war's end. On VE-Day, 1945, WNBT broadcast hours of news coverage, and remotes from around New York City. This event was pre-promoted by NBC with a direct-mail card ( sent to television set owners in the New York area. At one point, a WNBT camera placed atop the marquee of the Hotel Astor, panned the crowd below celebrating the end of the war in Europe. It was, by all reports, a thrilling prelude of things to come as television began its rapid ascent into the American household. After the war ended, development of television soared ahead and the NBC television network grew from its initial post-war lineup of four stations. The World Series of 1947 featured two New York teams (Yankees and Dodgers) and local TV sales boomed, since the games were telecast in New York. Stations along the East coast and Midwest were gradually connected by coaxial cable in the 1940s until September 1951, when the first transcontinental telecasts took place.
The early 1950s brought massive success for NBC in the new medium, as it launched television's first superstar in Milton Berle, whose antics on the The Texaco Star Theater drew massive audiences. Also, the network launched Today and The Tonight Show, which would bookend the broadcast day for over fifty years, continuing to this day to draw more eyes than the comparable offerings of other networks.
While rivals CBS and DuMont also offered color broadcasting plans, RCA convinced a waffling FCC that its color system should prevail, and in December 1953 the FCC agreed; the NBC network was to begin offering color programming within days of the FCC's decision. NBC began broadcasting certain shows in color in 1954, and the first NBC show to air all episodes in color, The Marriage, was shown that summer. In 1956 during a National Association meeting in Chicago, NBC announced that their Chicago TV station — WNBQ (now WMAQ-TV), was the first color TV station in the nation (at least six hours of color broadcasts a day). By 1963, most of NBC's prime time schedule was in color; without television sets to sell, rival networks followed more slowly, ABC in 1965-66 and CBS adopting the color standard effective September 11, 1967. Days of Our Lives was the first soap opera to premiere in color television.

The 1970s started strongly for the network thanks to hits like Laugh-In, Emergency!, Adam-12, The Dean Martin Show, and The Flip Wilson Show, but this did not last. In spite of the success of such new shows as The NBC Mystery Movie, Sanford and Son, Chico and the Man, Little House on the Prairie, The Rockford Files, and Quincy, M.E., as well as continued success from veterans like The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and The Wonderful World of Disney, the network entered a slump in the middle of the decade. Disney, in particular, saw its ratings nosedive once CBS put 60 Minutes up against it in the 1975-1976 season. None of the new shows NBC introduced in the fall of 1975 was invited back for a second season; they all failed because of established competition.
Starting in 1974 under new president Herb Schlosser, the network tried to go after younger viewers with a series of costly movies, miniseries and specials. This not only did not attract the desirable 18-34 demographic but managed to alienate older viewers.

1970s Doldrums
In the summer of 1981, Fred Silverman resigned. Grant Tinker became president of the network and Brandon Tartikoff became chief of programming. Tartikoff inherited a schedule full of aging dramas and very few sitcoms, but showed patience with programs that showed promise. One such show was the critically acclaimed Hill Street Blues, which rated poorly in its first season. Instead of cancelling it, he moved the Emmy-winning police drama to Thursday night where its ratings improved dramatically. He followed the same tactic with St. Elsewhere; shows like these were able to get the same ad revenue as their higher-rated, mass-audience competition because of their high numbers in the right demographics, mainly upscale, 18-34 year old viewers . While the network could claim mid-sized successes with Gimme a Break!, Silver Spoons, Knight Rider and Remington Steele, the network's biggest hit by far in this period was The A-Team, which, at 10th place, was the network's only Top 20 rated show of the 1982-1983 season. Shows like these helped them through the disastrous 1983-1984 season in which none of its new shows saw a second year. These nine series were: Bay City Blues, Boone, For Love and Honor, Jennifer Slept Here, Manimal, The Rousters, Mr. Smith, We Got it Made, and The Yellow Rose. This is the only time in history that a network's entire line of new series has failed to be renewed for a second season since the network's fall 1978 lineup.
In 1982, the network cancelled Tom Snyder's The Tomorrow Show and gave the time slot to 34-year-old comedian David Letterman. Though Letterman had had an unsuccessful daytime series in 1980, Late Night with David Letterman proved much more successful.
In 1984, the huge success of The Cosby Show led to a renewed interest in sitcoms, while Family Ties and Cheers, both of which premiered in 1982 to mediocre ratings, saw their viewership levels increase exponentially from having Cosby as a lead-in. The network moved from third place to second place that year, and claimed first place in the Nielsen rankings in the 1985-1986 season thanks to smash hits like The Golden Girls, Miami Vice, 227, Night Court, Highway to Heaven, and Hunter. The network's upswing continued throughout the decade thanks to such shows as ALF, Amen, Matlock, L.A. Law, The Hogan Family, A Different World, Empty Nest, and In the Heat of the Night. In the 1988-1989 season, NBC won every week in the ratings for over a full year, an achievement not since duplicated.

Tartikoff's Turnaround
In 1991, Tartikoff left NBC to take a position at Paramount Pictures. In one decade he had taken control of a network with no shows in the Nielsen Top 10 and left it with five. Warren Littlefield took his place; his start was shaky due to the end of most of the Tartikoff-era hits; additionally, some blamed him for losing David Letterman to CBS after giving The Tonight Show to Jay Leno when Johnny Carson retired in 1992. Things soon turned around with such hit series Mad About You, Friends, Frasier, ER, and Will & Grace. It was during this period that Seinfeld, one of Tartikoff's later acquisitions, became TV's number-one rated show. The famous Must-See TV tag line was applied to Thursday night's seemingly unbeatable lineup. Unfortunately, this was not to last.
When CBS chose Survivor to anchor its Thursday night line-up, its success was taken as a suggestion that NBC's nearly two decades of Thursday night dominance could be broken. With the loss of Friends and Frasier in 2004, NBC was faced with several moderately-rated shows and few true ratings hits. This, combined with CBS's popular CSI franchise, FOX's American Idol, and ABC hits such as Lost, Desperate Housewives and Grey's Anatomy, has led to NBC being currently ranked as the fourth most watched television network in the United States, after CBS, a resurgent ABC, and Fox. Still, much of NBC's woes can be attributed to the overall loss of network viewership to increased competition from cable, home video, and the internet.
During the 2004-05 season, NBC became the first major television network to start producing its programming in widescreen, with the hopes of attracting new viewers. Though NBC did see a slight boost in viewers, NBC didn't get any real ratings rise, since widescreen television has yet to catch on in popular culture.
In December 2005, NBC unleashed its first-ever week-long primetime game show event, Deal or No Deal, to big ratings by the end of its first week-long run and returned multi-weekly in March 2006. Having enjoyed sustained success, Deal or No Deal returned in the fall of 2006. But otherwise the 2005-06 season would be one of the worst for NBC in three decades, with only one series (My Name Is Earl) that debuted that fall surviving into a second season. The 2006-07 season was a mixed bag, with Heroes becoming a surprise hit on Monday nights, while the highly-anticipated Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip lost a third of its premiere-night viewers by week six and was eventually canned by the end of the season. The return of NFL football (eight years after NBC originally lost their rights), the still-strong Deal or No Deal, and the third season of The Office (fresh off its Emmy Award win for Outstanding Comedy Series) have so far not helped NBC out of fourth place.
It was reported in March 2007 that NBC will let viewers buy full-length prime-time television shows like The Office and Heroes on-demand to play on mobile phones. This will be a first for the United States. It is the latest effort by media and wireless companies to entice consumers to watch video on their phones.

"Must See TV" and Beyond
It was estimated in 2003 that NBC is viewable by just over 97 percent of all households, reaching 103,624,370 viewers in the United States. NBC has 10 owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates in the United States and its possessions. It is also seen throughout Latin America and the Caribbean via cable and satellite, via the WNBC feed from New York City, and in Canada via the WDIV feed from Detroit, WGRZ Buffalo, WHDH Boston, KHQ Spokane and KING Seattle depending on which affiliate the cable or satellite provider decided to carry.

Corporate Tidbits
NBC News currently has the highest rated morning show program (Today).

National Broadcasting Company NBC News
NBC presently operates on an 87-hour regular network programming schedule. It provides 22 hours of prime time programming to affiliated stations: 8:00-11:00 p.m. Monday through Saturday (all times ET/PT) and 7:00-11:00 p.m. on Sundays. Programming is also provided 7:00-10:00 a.m. weekdays in the form of Today, which also has a two-hour Saturday and one-hour Sunday edition; anytime between 12:00-3:00 p.m. weekdays (currently the soaps Days of Our Lives and Passions); nightly editions of NBC Nightly News; the Sunday political talk show Meet the Press; weekday early-morning news program Early Today; late night talk shows The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Late Night with Conan O'Brien and Last Call with Carson Daly; sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live; recently-added Poker After Dark, which airs following Last Call on weeknights and SNL on Saturday nights (or after re-broadcasts of local affiliate news); weeknight rebroadcasts of The Tonight Show under the banner NBC Up All Night; and a three-hour Saturday morning animation block under the name qubo. In addition, sports programming is also provided weekend afternoons any time from 12:00-6:00 p.m. ET, or tape-delayed PT.

Further information: List of programs broadcast by NBC
Returning comedies are in red; new comedies are in pink; returning dramas are in green; new dramas are in blue; returning reality shows are in yellow; new reality shows are in gold; returning game shows are in orange; new game shows are in beige; news programming is in brown; sports programming is in purple.
All times are Eastern and Pacific (subtract one hour for Central and Mountain time), with the exception of Sunday (see below).
See also: 2006-07 United States network television schedule

Prime time
NBC's Fall upfront presentation & schedule changes
See also: 2007-08 United States network television schedule

Returning midseason shows are dramas Medium and Law & Order and game show 1 vs. 100. Law & Order: Criminal Intent moved to USA. Fall 2007
NBC currently airs two daytime dramas, Days of our Lives and Passions. In 2007, Passions will make way for a fourth hour of Today. Long-running NBC daytime dramas of the past include Another World, The Doctors and Santa Barbara. NBC also aired the final four and a half years of Search for Tomorrow after the series was ended by CBS.
Notable long-running daytime game shows seen on NBC include Concentration, Let's Make a Deal, The Match Game, Jeopardy!, The Hollywood Squares, Wheel of Fortune, Password Plus/Super Password, Sale of the Century and Scrabble. Game shows left NBC's daytime schedule, presumably for good, in 1994.

Children's programming
In April, 2000, NBCi purchased a company that specialized with search engines that learnt from the users searches for $32 million, called GlobalBrain.
From 2001-2002, NBC briefly changed their web address to, in a heavily-advertised attempt to launch an Internet portal and start page. This move saw NBC teaming up with,,[1] and (eventually acquiring all four of them), launching a multi-faceted internet portal with e-mail, webhosting, community, chat, personalization and news capabilities. This experiment lasted roughly one season, and failed [2], and NBCi was liquidated. The NBC-TV portion of the website was then reverted to However, the NBCi Web site continued as a portal for NBC-branded content (the URL redirected to, using a co-branded version of InfoSpace to deliver minimal portal content. The website ceased to exist altogether after April 2, 2007, as most major corporations see no need for internet portals anymore, considering the widespread ubiquity of the internet.


Main article: NBC logos Evolution of the NBC logo

International broadcasts
Many cities in Canada including Toronto, Ontario, Vancouver, BC and Montreal, Quebec receive many United States NBC affiliates either over the air and on cable television and satellite television providers. In places far from the border, cable and satellite are the only ways to pick up NBC signals clearly. Aside from Simultaneous substitution, the programming and broadcasting is the same as in the United States.

The Seven Network has close ties with NBC and has used many of its slogans (including Let's All Be There). Seven News has featured "The Mission" as its news theme since the mid 1980s. Local newscasts were named Seven Nightly News from the mid 80s until around 2000.

NBC Nightly News is shown on CNBC Europe. NBC is not shown outside the Americas on a channel in its own right. However, both NBC News and MSNBC are shown for a few hours a day on Orbit News in Europe, Africa and the Middle East. MSNBC is also shown occasionally on sister network CNBC Europe during breaking news.
In 1993, NBC began production of Canal de Noticias NBC. This service was beamed to Latin America from the NBC Newschannel headquarters located in Charlotte, North Carolina. Over 50 journalists were brought to produce, write, anchor and technically produce a 24 hour news service based on the popular "wheel" conceived at CNN. The service folded in 1997 as sales departments were not able to generate any revenue. After Mexican Noticias ECO, Canal de Noticias NBC holds the distinction of being the first 24 hour news service to be seen in Latin America. Telenoticias, at one point owned by CBS, came later followed by CNN en Español.

Europe and Latin America
In 1993, the Pan-European cable network Super Channel was taken over by General Electric, the parent of NBC, and became NBC Super Channel. In 1996, the channel was renamed NBC Europe, but was, from then on, almost always referred to as simply "NBC" on the air.
Most of NBC Europe's prime time programming was produced in Europe, but after 11PM Central European Time on weekday evenings, the channel aired The Tonight Show, Late Night with Conan O'Brien and Saturday Night Live, hence its slogan "Where the Stars Come Out at Night." Most NBC News programs were broadcast on NBC Europe, including Dateline NBC and NBC Nightly News, which was aired live. The Today Show was also initially shown live in the afternoons, but was later broadcast the following morning instead, by which time it was more than half a day old.
In 1999, NBC Europe stopped broadcasting to most of Europe. At the same time the network was relaunched as a German language computer channel, targeting a young demographic. The main show on the new NBC Europe was called NBC GIGA. In 2005, the channel was relaunched once again, this time as a free-to-air channel under the name "Das Vierte". GIGA started an own digital channel then, which can be received via satellite and many cable networks in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
The Tonight Show, Late Night and NBC Nightly News continue to be broadcast on CNBC Europe.

NBC Asia

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