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Saturday, April 5, 2008

Flag of Manchukuo Manchukuo Flag of Thailand Thailand (from 1942) The Pacific War was the part of World War II—and preceding conflicts—that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, between July 7, 1937, and August 14, 1945. The most decisive actions took place after the Empire of Japan attacked various countries, who together came to be known as the Allies (or Allied powers), on or after December 7, 1941, including an attack on United States forces at Pearl Harbor.
Today, most Japanese also use the term "Pacific War" (太平洋戦争 Taiheiyō Sensō), officially adopted by the Imperial General Headquarters in 1941 and banned in 1945, during the occupation of Japan.

Between 1942 and 1945, there were four main areas of conflict in the Pacific War, ie. the war against Japan: China, the Central Pacific, South East Asia and the South West Pacific.
U.S. sources refer to two theaters within the Pacific War: the Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) and the China Burma India Theater (CBI). However these were not operational commands. In the PTO, the Allies divided operational control of their forces between two supreme commands, known as Pacific Ocean Areas and Southwest Pacific Area.
In 1945, for brief period just before the Japanese surrender, the Soviet Union and its Mongolian ally engaged Japanese forces in Manchuria and northeast China.

Pacific War Theatres

Conflict between China and Japan
The roots of the war began in the late 19th century with China in political chaos and Japan rapidly modernising. Over the course of the late 19th century and early 20th century, Japan intervened and finally annexed Korea and expanded its political and economic influence into China, particularly Manchuria. This expansion of power was aided because by the 1910s, China had fragmented into warlordism with only a weak and ineffective central government.
However, the situation of a weak China unable to resist Japanese demands appeared to be changing toward the end of the 1920s. In 1927, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT) led the Northern Expedition. Chiang was able to defeat the warlords in southern and central China, and was in the process of securing the nominal allegiance of the warlords in northern China. Fearing that Zhang Xueliang, the warlord controlling Manchuria, was about to declare his allegiance to Chiang, the Japanese staged the Mukden Incident in 1931 and set up the puppet state of Manchukuo. The nominal Emperor of this puppet state was better known as Henry Pu Yi of the defunct Qing Dynasty.
Japan's imperialist goals in China were to maintain a secure supply of natural resources and to have puppet governments in China that would not act against Japanese interests. Although Japanese actions would not have seemed out of place among European colonial powers in the 19th century, by 1930, notions of Wilsonian self-determination meant that raw military force in support of colonialism was no longer seen as appropriate behavior by the international community.
Hence Japanese actions in Manchuria were roundly criticised and led to Japan's withdrawal from the League of Nations. During the 1930s, China and Japan reached a stalemate with Chiang focusing his efforts at eliminating the Communist Party of China, whom he considered to be a more fundamental danger than the Japanese. The influence of Chinese nationalism on opinion both in the political elite and the general population rendered this strategy increasingly untenable.
Though they had at first cooperated in the Northern Expedition, during the period of 1930–34, the nationalist KMT and the Chinese Communist Party entered into direct conflict.
Meanwhile, in Japan, a policy of assassination by secret societies and the effects of the Great Depression had caused the civilian government to lose control of the military. In addition, the military high command had limited control over the field armies who acted in their own interest, often in contradiction to the overall national interest. Pan-Asianism was also used as a justification for expansion. This is perhaps best summarized by the "Amo Doctrine" of 1934, issued by Eiji Amo, head of information department of the Japanese Foreign Ministry. Known as the "Monroe Doctrine of Asia," it announced Japan's intention for European countries to adopt a "hands off" policy in China, thereby negating the Open Door Policy. It stated that Japan was to be the sole leader in security in East Asia, including the task of defeating communism. Economic reason was also a very important factor leading to the invasion of China. During the Great Depression, Japanese exports to American and European markets were severely curtailed, and Japan turned to completely dominating China politically and economically to provide a stable market. In the period leading up to full-scale war in 1937, Japan's use of force in localised conflicts to threaten China unless the latter reduced its protective tariff and suppressed anti-Japanese activities and boycotts were evidence to this.


Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War Second Sino-Japanese War
In an effort to discourage Japan's war efforts in China, the United States, Britain, and the Dutch government in exile (still in control of the oil-rich Dutch East Indies) stopped selling oil and steel to Japan. It was known as the "ABCD encirclement" (American-British-Chinese-Dutch) designed to deny Japan of the raw materials needed to continue its war in China. Japan saw this as an act of aggression, and without these resources Japan's military machine would grind to a halt. On December 8, 1941, Japanese forces attacked the British crown colony of Hong Kong, the International Settlement in Shanghai, and the Philippines, which was then a United States Commonwealth. Japan also used Vichy French bases in French Indochina to invade Thailand, then using the gained Thai territory to launch an assault against Malaya.
In the belief the U.S. would inevitably come to Britain's aid, simultaneously (December 7 in the Western Hemisphere), Japan launched a carrier-based air attack on Pearl Harbor, hoping to avoid prolonged war and, when faced with this sudden and massive defeat, the United States would agree to a negotiated settlement and allow Japan free reign in China. Admiral Yamamoto stated
This calculated gamble did not pay off; the United States refused to negotiate. Furthermore, American losses were less serious than initially thought; the American carriers were at sea, while vital base facilities like the fuel oil storage tanks and Navy Yard, loss of which could have crippled the Pacific Fleet, were untouched. Moreover, the Submarine Base and intelligence unit (HYPO), which made the largest contributions to Japan's defeat, were also unaffected.
War spreads in the East
Until the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had remained out of the Asian and European conflict. The America First Committee, 800,000 members strong, had until that day vehemently opposed any American intervention in the foreign conflict, even as America provided military aid to Britain and Soviet Union through the Lend-Lease program. Opposition to war in the United States vanished after the attack. Four days after Pearl Harbor, on December 11, Nazi Germany declared war on the United States, drawing America into a two-theater war. In 1941, Japan had only a fraction of the manufacturing capacity of the United States and was therefore perceived as a lesser threat than Germany.
British, Indian, and Dutch forces, already drained of personnel and matériel by two years of war with Germany, and heavily committed in the Middle East, North Africa and elsewhere, were unable to provide much more than token resistance to the battle-hardened Japanese. The Allies suffered many disastrous defeats in the first six months of the war. Two major British warships, HMS Repulse and HMS Prince of Wales were sunk by a Japanese air attack off Malaya on December 10, 1941. The government of Thailand surrendered within 24 hours of Japanese aggression and formally allied itself with Japan on December 21, allowing its military bases to be used as a launchpad against Singapore and Malaya. Hong Kong fell on December 25, and U.S. bases on Guam and Wake Island were lost at around the same time.
Following the January 1, 1942 Declaration by the United Nations (not to be confused with the United Nations Organization, organised after World War II), the Allied governments appointed the British General Sir Archibald Wavell as supreme commander of all "American-British-Dutch-Australian" (ABDA) forces in South East Asia. This gave Wavell nominal control of a huge but thinly-spread force covering an area from Burma to the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines. Other areas, including India, Australia and Hawaii remained under separate local commands. On January 15, Wavell moved to Bandung in Java to assume control of ABDA Command (ABDACOM).

United States enters the war
In January, Japan invaded Burma, the Dutch East Indies, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and they captured Manila, Kuala Lumpur and Rabaul. After being driven out of Malaya, Allied forces in Singapore attempted to resist the Japanese during the battle of Singapore but surrendered to the Japanese on February 15, 1942; about 130,000[2] Indian, Australian and British troops along with Dutch sailors, became prisoners of war. The pace of conquest was rapid: Bali and Timor also fell in February. The rapid collapse of Allied resistance had left the "ABDA area" split in two. Wavell resigned from ABDACOM on February 25, handing control of the ABDA Area to local commanders and returning to the post of Commander-in-Chief, India.
At the battle of the Java Sea in late February and early March, the Japanese Navy inflicted a resounding defeat on the main ABDA naval force, under Admiral Karel Doorman. The Netherlands East Indies campaign subsequently ended with the surrender of Allied forces on Java.
The British, under intense pressure, made a fighting retreat from Rangoon to the Indo-Burmese border. This cut the Burma Road which was the western Allies' supply line to the Chinese Nationalists. Cooperation between the Chinese Nationalists and the Communists had waned from its zenith at the Battle of Wuhan, and the relationship between the two had gone sour as both attempted to expand their area of operations in occupied territories. Most of the Nationalist guerrilla areas were eventually overtaken by the Communists. On the other hand, some Nationalist units were deployed to blockade the Communists and not the Japanese. Furthermore, many of the forces of the Chinese Nationalists were warlords allied to Chiang Kai-Shek, but not directly under his command. "Of the 1,200,000 troops under Chiang's control, only 650,000 were directly controlled by his generals, and another 550,000 controlled by warlords who claimed loyalty to his government; the strongest force was the Szechuan army of 320,000 men. The defeat of this army would do much to end Chiang's power." The Japanese used these divisions to press ahead in their offenses.
Filipino and U.S. forces put up a fierce resistance in the Philippines until May 8, 1942, when more than 80,000 of them surrendered. By this time, General Douglas MacArthur, who had been appointed Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific, had relocated his headquarters to Australia. The U.S. Navy, under Admiral Chester Nimitz, had responsibility for the rest of the Pacific Ocean.
Meanwhile, Japanese aircraft had all but eliminated Allied air power in South-East Asia and were making attacks on northern Australia, beginning with a disproportionately large and psychologically devastating attack on the city of Darwin on February 19, which killed at least 243 people. A raid by a powerful Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier force into the Indian Ocean resulted in the Battle of Ceylon and sinking of the only British carrier, HMS Hermes, in the theatre as well as 2 cruisers and other ships effectively driving the British fleet out of the Indian ocean and paving the way for Japanese conquest of Burma and a drive towards India. Air attacks on the U.S. mainland were insignificant, comprising of a submarine-based seaplane fire-bombing a forest in Oregon on September 9, 1942 (in 1944, fire balloon attacks were made using bombs carried to the United States from the Japanese mainland by the jetstream).

Japanese offensives, 1941-42
In early 1942, the governments of smaller powers began to push for an inter-governmental Asia-Pacific war council, based in Washington D.C.. A council was established in London, with a subsidiary body in Washington. However the smaller powers continued to push for a U.S.-based body. The Pacific War Council was formed in Washington on April 1, 1942, with a membership consisting of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, his key advisor Harry Hopkins, and representatives from Britain, China, Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Canada. Representatives from India and the Philippines were later added. The council never had any direct operational control, and any decisions it made were referred to the U.S.-British Combined Chiefs of Staff, which was also in Washington.
Allied resistance, at first symbolic, gradually began to stiffen. Australian and Dutch forces led civilians in a prolonged guerilla campaign in Portuguese Timor. The Doolittle Raid did minimal damage but was a huge morale booster for the Allies, especially the United States, and it caused repercussions throughout the Japanese military because they were sworn to protect the Japanese emperor and homeland but did not intercept, down, or damage a single bomber[3].

Allies re-group

Main articles: Battle of the Coral Sea and Battle of Midway Coral Sea and Midway: the turning point

Main articles: New Guinea campaign and Solomon Islands campaign New Guinea and the Solomons

Main article: Guadalcanal campaign Guadalcanal
By late 1942, the Japanese were also retreating along the Kokoda Track in the highlands of New Guinea. Australian and U.S. counteroffensives culminated in the capture of the key Japanese beachhead in eastern New Guinea, the Buna-Gona area, in early 1943.
In June 1943, the Allies launched Operation Cartwheel, which defined their offensive strategy in the South Pacific. The operation was aimed at isolating the major Japanese forward base, at Rabaul, and cutting its supply and communication lines. This prepared the way for Nimitz's island-hopping campaign towards Japan.

Allied advances in New Guinea and the Solomons

Main articles: Second Sino-Japanese War and South-East Asian Theatre of World War II Stalemate in China and South-East Asia
Midway proved to be the last great naval battle for two years. The United States used the two years to turn its vast industrial potential into actual ships, planes, and trained aircrew. At the same time, Japan, lacking an adequate industrial base or technological strategy, a good aircrew training program, and adequate naval resources and doctrine for commerce defense, fell further and further behind. In strategic terms the Allies began a long movement across the Pacific, seizing one island base after another. Not every Japanese stronghold had to be captured; some, like Truk, Rabaul and Formosa were neutralized by air attack and bypassed. The goal was to get close to Japan herself, then launch massive strategic air attacks, improve the submarine blockade, and finally (only if necessary) execute an invasion.
In November 1943, U.S. Marines sustained high casualties when they overwhelmed the 4,500-strong garrison at Tarawa. This helped the Allies to improve the techniques of amphibious landings, learning from their mistakes and implementing changes such as thorough pre-emptive bombings and bombardment, more careful planning regarding tides and landing craft schedules, and better overall coordination.
The U.S. Navy did not seek out the Japanese fleet for a decisive battle, as Mahanian doctrine would suggest (and as Japan hoped); the Allied advance could only be stopped by a Japanese naval attack, which oil shortages (induced by submarine attack) made impossible.

Allied offensives, 1943-44
U.S. submarines (with some aid from the British and Dutch), operating from bases in Australia, Hawaii, and Ceylon, played a major role in defeating Japan. This was the case even though submarines made up a small proportion of the Allied navies—less than two percent in the case of the U.S. Navy.

Submarine warfare

Main article: Battle of Henan-Hunan-Guangxi Japanese counteroffensives in China, 1944

The beginning of the end in the Pacific, 1944

Main articles: Battle of Saipan and Battle of the Philippine Sea Saipan and Philippine Sea:

Main article: Battle of Leyte Gulf Leyte Gulf 1944

Main article: Philippines campaign (1944-45) Philippines, 1944-45

Final stages

Main article: Burma Campaign Liberation of Borneo

Main article: Japan campaign Landings in the Japanese home islands
In August 1945, the U.S. dropped two nuclear weapons on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. More than 200,000 people died as a direct result of these two bombings.
On February 3, 1945, the Soviet Union agreed with Roosevelt to enter the Pacific conflict. It promised to act 90 days after the war ended in Europe and did so exactly on schedule on August 9, by launching Operation August Storm. A battle-hardened, one million-strong Soviet force, transferred from Europe attacked Japanese forces in Manchuria and quickly defeated their Kwantung Army.
In Japan, August 14 is considered to be the day that the Pacific War ended. However, Imperial Japan actually surrendered on August 15, and this day became known in the English-speaking countries as "V-J Day" (Victory in Japan). [5] The formal Instrument of Surrender was signed on September 2, 1945, on the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. The surrender was accepted by General Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Allied Commander, with representatives of each Allied nation, from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu.
A separate surrender ceremony between Japan and China was held in Nanking on September 9, 1945.
Following this period, MacArthur went to Tokyo to oversee the postwar development of the country. This period in Japanese history is known as the occupation.

Atomic bomb and the Soviet invasion
Second Sino-Japanese war

7 July 19379 September 1945 Timeline

1941-12-07 (12-08 Asian Time) Attack on Pearl Harbor
1941-12-08 Japanese Invasion of Thailand
1941-12-08 Battle of Guam (1941)
1941-12-08 United States declares war on Japan
1941-12-081941-12-25 Battle of Hong Kong
1941-12-081942-01-31 Battle of Malaya
1941-12-10 Sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse
1941-12-111941-12-24 Battle of Wake Island
1941-12-161942-04-01 Borneo campaign (1942)
1941-12-221942-05-06 Battle of the Philippines
1942-01-011945-10-25 Transport of POWs via Hell Ships
1942-01-111942-01-12 Battle of Tarakan
1942-01-23 Battle of Rabaul (1942)
1942-01-24 Naval Battle of Balikpapan
1942-01-25 Thailand declares war on the Allies
1942-01-301942-02-03 Battle of Ambon
1942-01-301942-02-15 Battle of Singapore
1942-02-04 Battle of Makassar Strait
1942-02-141942-02-15 Battle of Palembang
1942-02-19 Air raids on Darwin, Australia
1942-02-191942-02-20 Battle of Badung Strait
1942-02-191943-02-10 Battle of Timor (1942-43)
1942-02-271942-03-01 Battle of the Java Sea
1942-03-01 Battle of Sunda Strait
1942-03-011942-03-09 Battle of Java
1942-03-31 Battle of Christmas Island
1942-03-311942-04-10 Indian Ocean raid
1942-04-09 Bataan Death March begins
1942-04-18 Doolittle Raid
1942-05-03 Japanese invasion of Tulagi
1942-05-041942-05-08 Battle of the Coral Sea
1942-05-311942-06-08 Attacks on Sydney Harbour area, Australia
1942-06-041942-06-06 Battle of Midway Japanese conquest of Southeast Asia and Pacific
Burma Campaign: 1941-12-161945-08-15
New Guinea campaign
Aleutian Islands campaign
Guadalcanal campaign
Solomon Islands campaign
Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign
Mariana and Palau Islands campaign
Philippines campaign
Ryukyu Islands campaign
Borneo campaign
Japan campaign

1942-01-23Battle of Rabaul
1942-03-07Operation Mo (Japanese invasion of mainland New Guinea)
1942-05-041942-05-08 Battle of the Coral Sea
1942-07-011943-01-31 Kokoda Track Campaign
1942-08-251942-09-05 Battle of Milne Bay
1942-11-191942-01-23 Battle of Buna-Gona
1943-01-281943-01-30 Battle of Wau
1943-03-021943-03-04 Battle of the Bismarck Sea
1943-06-291943-09-16 Battle of Lae
1943-06-301944-03-25 Operation Cartwheel
1943-09-191944-04-24 Finisterre Range campaign
1943-09-221944-01-15 Huon Peninsula campaign
1943-11-011943-11-11 Attack on Rabaul
1943-12-151945-08-15 New Britain campaign
1944-02-291944-03-25 Admiralty Islands campaign
1944-04-221945-08-15 Western New Guinea campaign
1942-06-061943-08-15 Battle of the Aleutian Islands
1942-06-071943-08-15 Battle of Kiska
1943-03-26Battle of the Komandorski Islands
1942-08-071943-02-09 Battle of Guadalcanal
1942-08-09 Battle of Savo Island
1942-08-241942-08-25 Battle of the Eastern Solomons
1942-10-111942-10-12 Battle of Cape Esperance
1942-10-251942-10-27 Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands
1942-11-131942-11-15 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
1942-11-30 Battle of Tassafaronga
1943-01-291943-01-30 Battle of Rennell Island
1943-03-06 Battle of Blackett Strait
1943-06-101943-08-25 Battle of New Georgia
1943-07-06 Battle of Kula Gulf
1943-07-121943-07-13 Battle of Kolombangara
1943-08-061943-08-07 Battle of Vella Gulf
1943-08-171943-08-18 Battle off Horaniu
1943-08-151943-10-09 Land Battle of Vella Lavella
1943-11-011945-08-21 Battle of Bougainville
1943-11-011943-11-02 Battle of Empress Augusta Bay
1943-11-26 Battle of Cape St. George
1943-11-201943-11-23 Battle of Tarawa
1943-11-201943-11-24 Battle of Makin
1944-01-311944-02-07 Battle of Kwajalein
1944-02-161944-02-17 Attack on Truk
1944-02-161944-02-23 Battle of Eniwetok
1944-06-151944-07-09 Battle of Saipan
1944-06-191944-06-20 Battle of the Philippine Sea
1944-07-211944-08-10 Battle of Guam
1944-07-241944-08-01 Battle of Tinian
1944-09-151944-11-25 Battle of Peleliu
1944-09-171944-09-30 Battle of Angaur
1944-10-201944-12-10 Battle of Leyte
1944-10-241944-10-25 Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944-11-111944-12-21 Battle of Ormoc Bay
1944-12-151945-07-04 Battle of Luzon
1945-01-09 Invasion of Lingayen Gulf
1945-02-271945-07-04 Southern Philippines campaign
1945-01-241945-01-29 Operation Meridian
1945-02-161945-03-26 Battle of Iwo Jima
1945-04-011945-06-21 Battle of Okinawa
1945-04-07 Operation Ten-Go
1945-05-011945-05-25 Battle of Tarakan
1945-05-151945-05-16 Battle of the Malacca Strait
1945-06-101945-06-15 Battle of Brunei
1945-06-101945-06-22 Battle of Labuan
1945-06-171945-08-15 Battle of North Borneo
1945-07-071945-07-21 Battle of Balikpapan
1945-07-22 Battle of Tokyo Bay
1945-08-061945-08-09 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Notes

Eric M. Bergerud, Fire in the Sky: The Air War in the South Pacific (2000)
Clay Blair, Jr. Silent Victory. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975 (submarine war).
Thomas Buell, Master of Seapower: A Biography of Admiral Ernest J. King Naval Institute Press, 1976.
Thomas Buell, The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond Spruance. 1974.
John Costello, The Pacific War. 1982.
Wesley Craven, and James Cate, eds. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. 1, Plans and Early Operations, January 1939 to August 1942. University of Chicago Press, 1958. Official history; Vol. 4, The Pacific: Guadalcanal to Saipan, August 1942 to July 1944. 1950; Vol. 5, The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki. 1953.
Dunnigan, James F., and Albert A. Nofi. The Pacific War Encyclopedia. Facts on File, 1998. 2 vols. 772p.
Harry A. Gailey.' 'The War in the Pacific: From Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay (1995)
Saburo Hayashi and Alvin Coox. Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Quantico, Va.: Marine Corps Assoc., 1959.
James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine, eds. China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937–1945 M. E. Sharpe, 1992
Ch'i Hsi-sheng, Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945 University of Michigan Press, 1982
Rikihei Inoguchi, Tadashi Nakajima, and Robert Pineau. The Divine Wind. Ballantine, 1958. Kamikaze.
S. Woodburn Kirby, The War Against Japan. 4 vols. London: H.M.S.O., 1957-1965. Official Royal Navy history.
William M. Leary, We Shall Return: MacArthur's Commanders and the Defeat of Japan. University Press of Kentucky, 1988.
Gavin Long, Australia in the War of 1939–45, Army. Vol. 7, The Final Campaigns. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1963.
Dudley McCarthy, Australia in the War of 1939–45, Army. Vol. 5, South-West Pacific Area—First Year: Kokoda to Wau. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1959.
D. Clayton James, The Years of MacArthur. Vol. 2. Houghton Mifflin, 1972.
Maurice Matloff and Edwin M. Snell Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare 1941–1942, Center of Military History United States Army Washington, D. C., 1990
Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. 3, The Rising Sun in the Pacific. Boston: Little, Brown, 1961; Vol. 4, Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions. 1949; Vol. 5, The Struggle for Guadalcanal. 1949; Vol. 6, Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier. 1950; Vol. 7, Aleutians, Gilberts, and Marshalls. 1951; Vol. 8, New Guinea and the Marianas. 1962; Vol. 12, Leyte. 1958; vol. 13, The Liberation of the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, the Visayas. 1959; Vol. 14, Victory in the Pacific. 1961.
Masatake Okumiya, and Mitso Fuchida. Midway: The Battle That Doomed Japan. Naval Institute Press, 1955.
E. B. Potter, and Chester W. Nimitz. Triumph in the Pacific. Prentice Hall, 1963. Naval battles
E. B. Potter, Bull Halsey Naval Institute Press, 1985.
E. B. Potter, Nimitz. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1976.
John D. Potter, Yamamoto 1967.
Gordon W. Prange, Donald Goldstein, and Katherine Dillon. At Dawn We Slept. Penguin, 1982. Pearl Harbor
______, et al. Miracle at Midway. Penguin, 1982.
______, et al. Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History.
Seki, Eiji (2007). Sinking of the SS Automedon And the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 1905246285. 
Henry Shaw, and Douglas Kane. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Vol. 2, Isolation of Rabaul. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1963
Henry Shaw, Bernard Nalty, and Edwin Turnbladh. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Vol. 3, Central Pacific Drive. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1953.
E.B. Sledge, With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa. Presidio, 1981. Memoir.
J. Douglas Smith, and Richard Jensen. World War II on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites. (2002)
Ronald Spector, Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan Free Press, 1985.
John Toland, The Rising Sun. 2 vols. Random House, 1970. Japan's war.
H. P. Willmott. Empires in the Balance. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute Press, 1982.
________. The Barrier and the Javelin. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44317-2. (2005).
William Y'Blood, Red Sun Setting: The Battle of the Philippine Sea. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1980.

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