Blog Archive

Sunday, March 16, 2008

Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque Enlightenment Romanticism Positivism Young Poland Interbellum World War II Socialist realismPolish Renaissance Modern
Cinema Literature Music Theater
Artists Authors Composers Musicians Painters Poets
The Renaissance in Poland (Polish: Odrodzenie, literally 'Rebirth') lasted from the late 15th century to the late 16th century and is widely considered to be the Golden Age of Polish culture. The Kingdom of Poland (from 1569 known as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), ruled by the Jagiellon dynasty, actively participated in the European Renaissance. A century without major wars - only conflicts on the sparsely populated eastern and southern borders - allowed the multinational Polish entity to experience a significant period of cultural growth. The Reformation spread peacefully throughout the country (giving the rise to the Polish Brethren), living conditions improved significantly, cities grew, and exports of agricultural goods enriched the population, especially the nobility (szlachta) who gained the dominant hand in the political system (Golden Freedom).

Scholars of Polish Renaissance

Mikołaj Rej, poet
Jan Kochanowski, poet
Szymon Szymonowic, poet
Mikołaj Sęp Szarzyński, poet
Łukasz Górnicki, writer
Jan Sacranus, writer
Andrzej Krzycki, poet
Johannes Dantiscus, poet
Wacław z Szamotuł, composer
Mikołaj Gomółka, composer, singer
Marcin Kober, painter
Hans Dürer
Hans (Süss) von Kulmbach
Lucas Cranach
Mateo Gucci
Santi Gucci
Georg Pencz
Bartholommeo Berecci
Bernardo Morando
Giovanni Battista di Quadro Artists of Polish Renaissance
Polish renaissance architecture is divided into three periods:

First period (1500–1550), so called "Italian". Most of reinessance buildings were build in this time by Italian architects, mainly from Florence.
Second period (1550–1600), renaissance became most common, beginnings of Mannerist, influences of Netherland version of reinessance
Third period (1600–1650), Mannerist with first signs of Baroque Polish renaissance architecture
In 1499 Wawel Castle was partially burned. King Alexander Jagiellon in 1504 made main architect of renovation to Eberhard Rosemberger. Later he was replaced by Italian-born Francesco Florentino and after his death Bartolomeo Berrecci and Benedykt of Sandomierz. As an effect of those worjs Royal Castle was transformed in reinessance residence in florentine style. In this period also other castles were build or rebuild into new style:
In first period of reinessance churches were still build mostly in Gothic style. In this time only chappels surrounding old churches were sometimes build in new style. The oldest of them is build in 1519–1533 by Bartolomeo Berecci Sigismund's Chapel in Wawel Cathedral

Drzewica (build in 1527–1535)
Szydłowiec (rebuild 1509–1532)
Ogrodzieniec (rebuild 1532–1547)
Pieskowa Skała, (rebuild 1542–1580) First period
The Renaissance style became the most common style in the whole of Poland. In the northern part of the country, especially in Pommerania and Gdańsk works a large group of Netherlands artists. Renaissance style in other parts of Poland varied under local conditions, giving different substyles in each region. Also some elements of Manierist are included. Architecture of this period is divided in three regional substyles:
In the whole of Poland, new castles were built with a new quadrilateral shape with a yard in the centre and four towers in the corners, examples are:
Also cities founds new building in Renaissance style. New Cloth Hall in Cracow were built, city halls were built or rebuilt in : Tarnów, Sandomierz, Chełm (demolished) and most famously in Poznań. Also whole towns were projected. Examples of Renaissance urbanism survived into modern times in Szydłowiec and Zamość.
Examples of Pommeranian Renaissance that was under influence rather of art of Northern Europe than Italy were:
Characteristic laicization of life in Renaissance and reformation gave only minor development of sacral art. Still mainly chapels were built in the Renaissance style, but some churches were rebuilt including:
Only a few new churches were founded, like collegiate of St. Thomas in Zamość.

"Italian" - mostly in the southern part of Poland (the most famous artist was Santi Gucci)
"Netherlands" - mostly in Pommerania
"Kalisz-Lublin style" - central Poland, with most known examples in Kazimierz Dolny.
Castle in Płakowice (16th c.)
Castle in Brzeg, (rebuild from gothic stronghold in 1544–1560)
Castle in Niepołomice (rebuild after fire in 1550–1571)
Castle in Baranów Sandomierski, (build in 1591–1606 by Santi Gucci)
Castle in Krasiczyn
Green Gate in Gdańsk (build in 1564–1568 by Hans Kramer)
Upland Gate in Gdańsk (Willem van den Blocke finished it in 1588)
Great Arsenal in Gdańsk (build in 1602–1606 by Anton van Obberghen)
Old City Hall in Gdańsk (build in 1587–1595) probably by Anton van Obberghen)
Cathedral in Płock (rebuilt after fire by Zanobi de Gianotis, Cini, Filippo di Fiesole and later rebuilt again by Giovanni Battista di Quadro)
Collegiate in Pułtusk (rebuilt by John Batista of Venice) Second period
The fire on Wawel and moving the capital to Warsaw in 1596 stopped the development of Cracow, also Gdańsk. Also, the rising power of Jesuits and counterreformation gave impetus to the development of Manierist architecture and a new style - Baroque
The most important examples of manierist architecture in Poland is a complex of houses in Kazimierz Dolny.


History of Poland (1385-1569)

No comments: